In optics, the f-number (sometimes called focal ratio, f-ratio, f-stop, or relative aperture) of an optical system is the ratio of the lens’s focal
Beta (financial elasticity)
In finance, the beta (β) of an investment is a measure of the risk arising from exposure to general market movements as opposed to idiosyncratic factors.
Vertical Curve - Offset
Offsets are vertical distances from the initial tangent to the curve, play a significant role in vertical curve design.
Vertical Curves are the
Distance of L3 Langarian point
In celestial mechanics, the Lagrangian points (also Lagrange points, L-points, or libration points) are positions in an orbital configuration of two large