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Collision between electron and ion (The mean free path)

Ionization is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions. Ionization can ... more

Snell's law of refraction ( wavelengths)

When a ray of light hits the boundary between two transparent materials, it is divided into a reflected and a refracted ray.The law of refraction states ... more

Angular frequency (De Broglie dispersion relation in nonrelativistic limit)

Elementary particles, atomic nuclei, atoms, and even molecules behave in some contexts as matter waves. According to the de Broglie, angular frequency and ... more

Hawking radiation energy of black-body (Planck) spectrum

black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence. A black hole ... more

Laser rangefinder - distance realtive to wavelength and number of cycle

A laser rangefinder is a rangefinder that uses a laser beam to determine the distance to an object. The most common form of laser rangefinder operates on ... more

Cross Section (flux)

The cross section is an effective area that quantifies the intrinsic likelihood of a scattering event when an incident beam strikes a target object, made ... more

Signal Attenuation

In physics, attenuation (in some contexts also called extinction) is the gradual loss in intensity of any kind of flux through a medium. For instance, dark ... more

Lorentz force

Lorentz force is the force applied on a charged particle, moving with velocity v, vertically into a magnetic field. A positively charged particle will be ... more

Stokes' law (Excess force due to the difference of the weight of the sphere and the buoyancy on the sphere)

The weight of an object is the force on the object due to gravity. Buoyancy is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed ... more

Stokes' law

Stokes’ law is an expression for the frictional force – also called drag force – exerted on spherical objects with very small Reynolds numbers (e.g., ... more

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