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Oblique Shock

An oblique shock wave, unlike a normal shock, is inclined with respect to the incident upstream flow direction. It will occur when a supersonic flow ... more

Strain energy release (Irwin's modification for plane strain)

A fracture is the separation of an object or material into two, or more, pieces under the action of stress.There are three ways of applying a force to ... more

Spring constant

Hooke’s law is a principle of physics that states that the force F needed to extend or compress a spring by some distance X is proportional to that ... more

Refractive Index ( absolute index of refraction )

The refractive index or index of refraction of a substance is a dimensionless number that describes how light, or any other radiation, propagates through ... more

Shock Diamond - distance from the nozzle

Shock diamonds (also known as Mach diamonds, Mach disks, Mach rings, doughnut tails or thrust diamonds) are a formation of standing wave patterns that ... more

Malus' law in X-ray (relavistic form)

A polarizer or polariser is an optical filter that passes light of a specific polarization and blocks waves of other polarizations.
When a perfect ... more

Shear Modulus

In materials science, shear modulus or modulus of rigidity, denoted by G, or sometimes S or μ, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain. ... more

Prandtl–Meyer expansion fan - final flow density

A supersonic expansion fan, technically known as Prandtl–Meyer expansion fan, is a centred expansion process that occurs when a supersonic flow turns ... more

Snell's law of refraction ( wavelengths)

When a ray of light hits the boundary between two transparent materials, it is divided into a reflected and a refracted ray.The law of refraction states ... more

Prandtl–Meyer expansion fan - Prandtl–Meyer function

A supersonic expansion fan, technically known as Prandtl–Meyer expansion fan, is a centred expansion process that occurs when a supersonic flow turns ... more

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