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Horizontal Curve - Degree of curve

Aside from momentum, when a vehicle makes a turn, two forces are acting upon it. The first is gravity, which pulls the vehicle toward the ground. The ... more

Excess pressure due to water hammer

Water hammer (or, more generally, fluid hammer) is a pressure surge or wave caused when a fluid (usually a liquid but sometimes also a gas) in motion is ... more

Runoff equation ( P >Ia)

Surface runoff is the water flow that occurs when the soil is infiltrated to full capacity and excess water from rain. The runoff is depended on the ... more

Ghyben-Herzberg relation (Saltwater intrusion)

Saltwater intrusion is the movement of saline water into freshwater aquifers, which can lead to contamination of drinking water sources and other ... more

Specific gravity of solids

Silts, sands and gravels are classified by their size, and hence they may consist of a variety of minerals. Owing to the stability of quartz compared to ... more

Direct mesurement of the Volumetric Water content

Water content or moisture content is the quantity of water contained in a material, such as soil (called soil moisture), rock, ceramics, fruit, or wood. ... more

Saturated unit weight

In fluid mechanics, specific weight represents the force exerted by gravity on a unit volume of a fluid. Specific weight can be used as a characteristic ... more

Submerged unit weight

In fluid mechanics, specific weight ( or unit weight ) represents the force exerted by gravity on a unit volume of a fluid. Specific weight can be used as ... more

Moist unit weight

In fluid mechanics, specific weight represents the force exerted by gravity on a unit volume of a fluid. Specific weight can be used as a characteristic ... more

Dry unit weight

n fluid mechanics, specific weight represents the force exerted by gravity on a unit volume of a fluid. Specific weight can be used as a characteristic ... more

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