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Cyclic quadrilateral (tangent of an angle)

In Euclidean geometry, a cyclic quadrilateral or inscribed quadrilateral is a quadrilateral whose vertices all lie on a single circle. This circle is ... more

Depth of field (in relation to the magnification)

Depth of field (DOF), or depth of focus, is the distance between the nearest and farthest objects in a scene that appear ... more

Centripetal Force

Centripetal force (from Latin centrum “center” and petere “to seek”) is a force that makes a body follow a curved path: its ... more

Klein bagel ( "figure 8" immersion z-coordinate)

In mathematics, the Klein bottle is an example of a non-orientable surface, informally, it is a surface (a two-dimensional manifold) in which notions of ... more

Spherical Law of Cosines (cosine rule for angles)

In spherical trigonometry, the law of cosines (also called the cosine rule for sides) is a theorem relating the sides and angles of spherical triangles, ... more

Worksheet 316

Calculate the change in length of the upper leg bone (the femur) when a 70.0 kg man supports 62.0 kg of his mass on it, assuming the bone to be equivalent to a uniform rod that is 45.0 cm long and 2.00 cm in radius.

Strategy

The force is equal to the weight supported:

Force (Newton's second law)

and the cross-sectional area of the upper leg bone(femur) is:

Disk area

To find the change in length we use the Young’s modulus formula. The Young’s modulus reference value for a bone under compression is known to be 9×109 N/m2. Now,all quantities except ΔL are known. Thus:

Young's Modulus

Discussion

This small change in length seems reasonable, consistent with our experience that bones are rigid. In fact, even the rather large forces encountered during strenuous physical activity do not compress or bend bones by large amounts. Although bone is rigid compared with fat or muscle, several of the substances listed in Table 5.3(see reference below) have larger values of Young’s modulus Y . In other words, they are more rigid.

Reference:
This worksheet is a modified version of Example 5.4 page 188 found in :
OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.
http://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/college-physics
Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Interior perpendicular bisector of a triangle

The interior perpendicular bisector of a side of a triangle is the segment, falling entirely on and inside the triangle, of the line that perpendicularly ... more

Möbius transformation (Möbius function)

In geometry and complex analysis, a Möbius transformation of the plane is a rational function of one complex variable. A Möbius transformation can be ... more

Centripetal Force - angular velocity

Centripetal force (from Latin centrum “center” and petere “to seek”) is a force that makes a body follow a curved path: its ... more

Bend allowance

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