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Intensity of unpolarized light (Malus' law)

Light as one type of electromagnetic (EM) wave, is a transverse wave, consisting of varying electric and magnetic fields that oscillate perpendicular to ... more

Angular frequency for electromagnetic waves in vacuum

Plane waves in vacuum are the simplest case of wave propagation: no geometric constraint, no interaction with a transmitting medium. For electromagnetic ... more

Bulk Modulus - volume

The bulk modulus ( or ) of a substance measures the substance’s resistance to uniform compression. It is defined as the ratio of the infinitesimal ... more

Snell's law (velocities)

Snell’s law (also known as the Snell–Descartes law and the law of refraction) is a formula used to describe the relationship between the angles of ... more

Wavelength of pressure waves

In an elastic medium with rigidity, a harmonic pressure wave oscillation is related to the amplitude of displacement, the distance along the axis of ... more

Strain energy release (Irwin's modification for plane stress)

A fracture is the separation of an object or material into two, or more, pieces under the action of stress.There are three ways of applying a force to ... more

Force due to water hammer (Slow valve closure)

Water hammer (or, more generally, fluid hammer) is a pressure surge or wave caused when a fluid (usually a liquid but sometimes also a gas) in motion is ... more

Mach wave (angle)

In fluid dynamics, a Mach wave is a pressure wave traveling with the speed of sound caused by a slight change of pressure added to a compressible flow. ... more

Plane wave ( in the positive x direction)

In the physics of wave propagation, a plane wave is a constant-frequency wave whose wavefronts (surfaces of constant phase) are infinite parallel planes of ... more

Sears–Haack body (Wave Drag related to the Volume)

The Sears–Haack body is the shape with the lowest theoretical wave drag in supersonic flow, for a given body length and given volume. The mathematical ... more

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