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Critical Damping Coefficient

A harmonic oscillator is a system that, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force, proportional to the displacement. If a ... more

Tsiolkovsky rocket equation as function of payload

The Tsiolkovsky rocket equation, classical rocket equation, or ideal rocket equation is a mathematical equation that describes the motion of vehicles that ... more

Compton scattering

Compton scattering is an inelastic scattering of a photon by a free charged particle, usually an electron. It results in a decrease in energy (increase in ... more

Worksheet 341

The aweÔÇÉinspiring Great Pyramid of Cheops was built more than 4500 years ago. Its square base, originally 230 m on a side, covered 13.1 acres, and it was 146 m high (H), with a mass of about 7×10^9 kg. (The pyramid’s dimensions are slightly different today due to quarrying and some sagging). Historians estimate that 20,000 workers spent 20 years to construct it, working 12-hour days, 330 days per year.

a) Calculate the gravitational potential energy stored in the pyramid, given its center of mass is at one-fourth its height.

Division
Potential energy

b) Only a fraction of the workers lifted blocks; most were involved in support services such as building ramps, bringing food and water, and hauling blocks to the site. Calculate the efficiency of the workers who did the lifting, assuming there were 1000 of them and they consumed food energy at the rate of 300 Kcal/hour.

first we calculate the number of hours worked per year.

Multiplication

then we calculate the number of hours worked in the 20 years.

Multiplication

Then we calculate the energy consumed in 20 years knowing the energy consumed per hour and the total hours worked in 20 years.

Multiplication
Multiplication

The efficiency is the resulting potential energy divided by the consumed energy.

Division
Wavenumber

In the physical sciences, the wavenumber (also wave number) is the spatial frequency of a wave, either in cycles per unit distance or radians per unit ... more

Critical Damping Coefficient (related to the natural frequency)

A harmonic oscillator is a system that, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force, proportional to the displacement. If a ... more

Tunnel Ionization - DC

Tunnel ionization is a process in which electrons in an atom (or a molecule) pass through the potential barrier and escape from the atom (or molecule). In ... more

Maximum thermal efficiency of an Otto cycle

The constant volume adiabatic flame temperature is the temperature that results from a complete combustion process that occurs without any work, heat ... more

Latent Heat

Latent heat is the energy released or absorbed by a body or a thermodynamic system during a constant-temperature process. A typical example is a change of ... more

Inverse-square law gravitational field ( free-fall time for two point objects on a radial path)

Two objects in space orbiting each other in the absence of other forces are in free fall around each other. The motion of two objects moving radially ... more

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