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Electron orbit radius

In atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in ... more

Electron's speed at any radius

The electrons can only orbit stably, without radiating, in certain orbits at a certain discrete set of distances from the nucleus. These orbits are ... more

Electron's speed at any radius ( related to the energy level)

Electrons in atoms orbit the nucleus. The electrons can only orbit stably, without radiating, in certain orbits (called by Bohr the “stationary ... more

1st Bohr's condition

In atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in ... more

Internal conversion coefficient

Internal conversion is a radioactive decay process where an excited nucleus interacts electromagnetically with an electron in one of the lower atomic ... more

Auger electron spectroscopy - Energetics of Auger transitions

Auger electron spectroscopy is a common analytical technique used specifically in the study of surfaces and, more generally, in the area of materials ... more

Tunnel Ionization - DC

Tunnel ionization is a process in which electrons in an atom (or a molecule) pass through the potential barrier and escape from the atom (or molecule). In ... more

Auger electron spectroscopy - Energetics of Auger transitions (more rigorous model)

Auger electron spectroscopy is a common analytical technique used specifically in the study of surfaces and, more generally, in the area of materials ... more

Auger electron spectroscopy - emitted electron kinetic energy

Auger electron spectroscopy is a common analytical technique used specifically in the study of surfaces and, more generally, in the area of materials ... more

Auger electron spectroscopy - The Auger yield

Auger electron spectroscopy is a common analytical technique used specifically in the study of surfaces and, more generally, in the area of materials ... more

Gyromagnetic ratio for a nucleus

In physics, the gyromagnetic ratio (also sometimes known as the magnetogyric ratio in other disciplines) of a particle or system is the ratio of its ... more

Auger electron spectroscopy - The Auger yield (relative to the transition probability)

Auger electron spectroscopy is a common analytical technique used specifically in the study of surfaces and, more generally, in the area of materials ... more

Auger electron spectroscopy - electron impact cross-section

Auger electron spectroscopy is a common analytical technique used specifically in the study of surfaces and, more generally, in the area of materials ... more

Dirac particle (spin magnetic moment)

The spin magnetic moment of a charged, spin-1/2 particle that does not possess any internal structure (a Dirac particle).

In physics, mainly ... more

Gyromagnetic ratio for an isolated electron

In physics, the gyromagnetic ratio (also sometimes known as the magnetogyric ratio in other disciplines) of a particle or system is the ratio of its ... more

Auger electron spectroscopy - Total yield

Auger electron spectroscopy is a common analytical technique used specifically in the study of surfaces and, more generally, in the area of materials ... more

Auger electron spectroscopy - Electron impact cross-section (account for matrix effects)

Auger electron spectroscopy is a common analytical technique used specifically in the study of surfaces and, more generally, in the area of materials ... more

Planck's relation

Electrons can only gain and lose energy by jumping from one allowed orbit to another, absorbing or emitting electromagnetic radiation with a frequency ... more

Drift velocity in a current-carrying metallic conductor

The drift velocity is the average velocity that a particle, such as an electron, attains due to an electric field. In general, an electron will 'rattle ... more

Electric Current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge. In electric circuits this charge is often carried by moving electrons in a wire. It can also be carried ... more

Hall coefficient in semiconductors (for moderate magnetic fields)

The Hall effect is the production of a voltage difference (the Hall voltage) across an electrical conductor, transverse to an electric current in the ... more

Rydberg formula - For hydrogen-like element

The Rydberg formula is used in atomic physics to describe the wavelengths of spectral lines of many chemical elements. It was formulated by the Swedish ... more

Drift velocity in a current-carrying metallic ohmic conductor

The drift velocity is the average velocity that a particle, such as an electron, attains due to an electric field.

In terms of the basic ... more

Plasma conductivity

Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is an intrinsic property that quantifies how ... more

Hall parameter (due to Hall effect in ionized gases)

The Hall parameter, β, in a plasma is the ratio between the electron gyro-frequency, and the electron-heavy particle collision frequency. In a plasma, the ... more

Hall voltage (Hall effect)

The Hall effect is the production of a voltage difference (the Hall voltage) across an electrical conductor, transverse to an electric current in the ... more

Richardson's law

Thermionic emission is the thermally induced flow of charge carriers from a surface or over a potential-energy barrier. This occurs because the thermal ... more

Probability that an electron hits an ion at ionization process

Ionization is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions. If an electron ... more

Collision between electron and ion (The mean free path)

Ionization is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions. Ionization can ... more

Miller's Rule

In optics, Miller’s rule is an empirical rule which gives an estimate of the order of magnitude of the nonlinear coefficient.

More formally, ... more

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