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Elastic potential energy( with respect to Length)

Elastic energy is the potential mechanical energy stored in the configuration of a material or physical system as work is performed to distort its volume ... more

Gyromagnetic ratio for a nucleus

In physics, the gyromagnetic ratio (also sometimes known as the magnetogyric ratio in other disciplines) of a particle or system is the ratio of its ... more

Electromagnetic mass ( longitudinal mass) by Lorentz

Due to the self-induction effect, electrostatic energy behaves as having some sort of momentum and “apparent” electromagnetic mass, which can ... more

Worksheet 316

Calculate the change in length of the upper leg bone (the femur) when a 70.0 kg man supports 62.0 kg of his mass on it, assuming the bone to be equivalent to a uniform rod that is 45.0 cm long and 2.00 cm in radius.

Strategy

The force is equal to the weight supported:

Force (Newton's second law)

and the cross-sectional area of the upper leg bone(femur) is:

Disk area

To find the change in length we use the Young’s modulus formula. The Young’s modulus reference value for a bone under compression is known to be 9×109 N/m2. Now,all quantities except ΔL are known. Thus:

Young's Modulus

Discussion

This small change in length seems reasonable, consistent with our experience that bones are rigid. In fact, even the rather large forces encountered during strenuous physical activity do not compress or bend bones by large amounts. Although bone is rigid compared with fat or muscle, several of the substances listed in Table 5.3(see reference below) have larger values of Young’s modulus Y . In other words, they are more rigid.

Reference:
This worksheet is a modified version of Example 5.4 page 188 found in :
OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.
http://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/college-physics

Beam shear

Shear stress,is defined as the component of stress coplanar with a material cross section. The average shear stress is force per unit area. Beam shear is ... more

Klein bagel ( "figure 8" immersion z-coordinate)

In mathematics, the Klein bottle is an example of a non-orientable surface, informally, it is a surface (a two-dimensional manifold) in which notions of ... more

Magnetic potential energy

The energy of a magnetic moment “m” in an externally produced magnetic field “B”. Is related to the distance between magnetic ... more

Hartmann Number

Hartmann number (Ha) is the ratio of electromagnetic force to the viscous force first introduced by Hartmann.

... more

Capacitive Reactance

In electrical and electronic systems, reactance is the opposition of a circuit element to a change of electric current or voltage, due to that ... more

Mutual inductance factor (coils' inductance)

The mutual inductance in relation with the coupling coefficient and the inductance of two coils

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