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Cohen's kappa coefficient

Cohen’s kappa coefficient is a statistical measure of inter-rater agreement or inter-annotator agreement for qualitative (categorical) items. It is ... more

Inductance - capacitance relation

Inductance per length and capacitance per length are related to each other in the special case of “transmission lines” consisting of two ... more

Ellipse Circumference (Ramanujan formula)

Ellipse is a curve on a plane surrounding two focal points such that a straight line drawn from one of the focal points to any point on the curve and then ... more

Circumference of an Ellipse - Ramanujan, second approximation

An ellipse is a curve on a plane surrounding two focal points such that a straight line drawn from one of the focal points to any point on the curve and ... more

Fermi–Dirac distribution

Fermi–Dirac statistics describes a distribution of particles over energy states in systems consisting of many identical particles that obey the Pauli ... more

Solar cell - current delivered by the illuminated diode

Operation of a solar cell can be understood from the equivalent circuit at right. Light, of sufficient energy (greater than the bandgap of the material), ... more

Apparent power

The power factor of an AC electrical power system is defined as the ratio of the real power flowing to the load, to the apparent power in the circuit. In a ... more

Ripple voltage (full-wave rectifier))

The most common meaning of ripple in electrical science is the small unwanted residual periodic variation of the direct current (DC) output of a power ... more

Ripple voltage (half-wave rectifier))

The most common meaning of ripple in electrical science is the small unwanted residual periodic variation of the direct current (DC) output of a power ... more

Solar Cell - Fill Factor

Solar cell efficiency is the ratio of the electrical output of a solar cell to the incident energy in the form of sunlight. The energy conversion ... more

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