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Fresnel reflection (Reflectivity Rp)

The Fresnel equations (or Fresnel conditions) describe the behaviour of light when moving between media of differing refractive indices. The reflection of ... more

Fresnel reflection (Reflectivity Rs)

The Fresnel equations (or Fresnel conditions) describe the behaviour of light when moving between media of differing refractive indices. The reflection of ... more

Refractive Index ( absolute index of refraction )

The refractive index or index of refraction of a substance is a dimensionless number that describes how light, or any other radiation, propagates through ... more

Snell's Law (related to indices of refraction)

Snell’s law (also known as the Snell–Descartes law and the law of refraction) is a formula used to describe the relationship between the angles of ... more

Reflectance for unpolarised incident light

The Fresnel equations (or Fresnel conditions) describe the behaviour of light when moving between media of differing refractive indices. The reflection of ... more

Refarctive index (absence of attenuation in vacuum)

When an electromagnetic wave travels through a medium in which it gets attenuated (this is called an “opaque” or “attenuating” ... more

Arbitrary Cherenkov emission angle

Cherenkov radiation, also known as Vavilov–Cherenkov radiation,[a] is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle (such as an electron) ... more

Snell's law (velocities)

Snell’s law (also known as the Snell–Descartes law and the law of refraction) is a formula used to describe the relationship between the angles of ... more

Lensmaker's equation

A lens is a transmissive optical device which affects the focusing of a light beam through refraction. A simple lens consists of a single piece of ... more

Rayleigh Scattering - Intensity of Light

Rayleigh scattering (pronounced /ˈreɪli/ RAY-lee), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic ... more

Guided ray (acceptance angle)

A guided ray (also bound ray or trapped ray) is a ray of light in a multi-mode optical fiber ( type of optical fiber mostly used for communication over ... more

Numerical Aperture

In optics, the numerical aperture (NA) of an optical system is a dimensionless number that characterizes the range of angles over which the system can ... more

Abbe number ( V-number)

Abbe number , is a measure of the material’s dispersion in relation to the refractive index, with high values of V indicating low dispersion (low ... more

Rayleigh Scattering Cross-Section

Rayleigh scattering (pronounced /ˈreɪli/ RAY-lee), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic ... more

Snell's law of refraction ( wavelengths)

When a ray of light hits the boundary between two transparent materials, it is divided into a reflected and a refracted ray.The law of refraction states ... more

Sagnac Effect - TIme Difference

The Sagnac effect (also called Sagnac interference), named after French physicist Georges Sagnac, is a phenomenon encountered in interferometry that is ... more

Rayleigh Scattering - Intensity of Light from molecules

Rayleigh scattering (pronounced /ˈreɪli/ RAY-lee), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic ... more

Molar Refractivity - related to pressure

Molar refractivity, A, is a measure of the total polarizability of a mole of a substance and is dependent on the temperature, the index of refraction, and ... more

Refractive Index (electromagnetic radiation)

The refractive index is used for optics in Fresnel equations and Snell’s law; while the relative permittivity and permeability are used in ... more

Photoacoustic Doppler effect

The photoacoustic Doppler effect is one specific kind of Doppler effect, which occurs when an intensity modulated light wave induces a photoacoustic wave ... more

Molar Refractivity

Molar refractivity, A, is a measure of the total polarizability of a mole of a substance and is dependent on the temperature, the index of refraction, and ... more

Malus' law in X-ray (relavistic form)

A polarizer or polariser is an optical filter that passes light of a specific polarization and blocks waves of other polarizations.
When a perfect ... more

Malus' law (polarized light)

A polarizer or polariser is an optical filter that passes light of a specific polarization and blocks waves of other polarizations.
When a perfect ... more

Speed of light in matter

The speed of light in vacuum is the speed at which all massless particles and changes of the associated fields (including electromagnetic radiation such as ... more

Intensity of unpolarized light (Malus' law)

Light as one type of electromagnetic (EM) wave, is a transverse wave, consisting of varying electric and magnetic fields that oscillate perpendicular to ... more

Speed of Sound in Plasma

The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit of time by a sound wave propagating through an elastic medium.
The speed of sound in a plasma ... more

Speed of Sound (air, ideal gases) - relative to the mass of a single molecule

The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave propagating through an elastic medium. The SI unit of the speed of sound is the ... more

Speed of Sound (air, ideal gases)

The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave propagating through an elastic medium. The SI unit of the speed of sound is the ... more

Vacuum wavelength

When an electromagnetic wave travels through a medium in which it gets attenuated (this is called an “opaque” or “attenuating” ... more

Time of Flight

Time of flight (TOF) describes a variety of methods that measure the time that it takes for an object, particle or acoustic, ... more

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