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Carnot cycle

Every single thermodynamic system exists in a particular state. When a system is taken through a series of different states and finally returned to its ... more

Helmholtz free energy

The Helmholtz free energy is a thermodynamic potential that measures the “useful” work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system at a constant ... more

Combined gas law

The combined gas law is a gas law which combines Charles’s law, Boyle’s law, and Gay-Lussac’s law. The combined gas law states that:
... more

Rayleigh number (for geophysical applications - related to bottom heating of the mantle from the core)

In fluid mechanics, the Rayleigh number (Ra) for a fluid is a dimensionless number associated with buoyancy-driven flow, also known as free convection or ... more

Prandtl–Meyer expansion fan - final flow tempreture

A supersonic expansion fan, technically known as Prandtl–Meyer expansion fan, is a centred expansion process that occurs when a supersonic flow turns ... more

Drift velocity in a current-carrying metallic conductor

The drift velocity is the average velocity that a particle, such as an electron, attains due to an electric field. In general, an electron will 'rattle ... more

Thom correlation

There exist simple fluid-specific correlations for heat transfer coefficient in boiling. The Thom correlation is for the flow of boiling water (subcooled ... more

Carnot efficiency

The theoretical maximum efficiency of any heat engine depends only on the temperatures it operates between. This efficiency is usually derived using an ... more

Gibbs free energy (when charge is passed in a battery)

The Gibbs free energy is a thermodynamic potential that measures the “usefulness” or process-initiating work obtainable from a thermodynamic system, at a ... more

Enthalpy of isobaric process

An isobaric process is a thermodynamic process in which the pressure stays constant: ΔP = 0. The heat transferred to the system does work, but also changes ... more

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