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Tractive Force - Steam locomotives

As used in mechanical engineering, the term tractive force can either refer to the total traction a vehicle exerts on a surface, or the amount of the total ... more

Speed of Sound (air, ideal gases) - relative to the mass of a single molecule

The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave propagating through an elastic medium. The SI unit of the speed of sound is the ... more

Friction Loss (laminar flow)

In fluid flow, friction loss (or skin friction) is the loss of pressure or “head” that occurs in pipe or duct flow due to the effect of the fluid’s ... more

Time to reach specific temperature (related to Biot and Fourier numbers)

The Biot number (Bi) is a dimensionless quantity used in heat transfer calculations. Gives a simple index of the ratio of the heat transfer resistances ... more

Zero-Lift Drag Coefficient

In aerodynamics, the lift-to-drag ratio, or L/D ratio, is the amount of lift generated by a wing or vehicle, divided by the drag it creates by moving ... more

Guided ray (acceptance angle)

A guided ray (also bound ray or trapped ray) is a ray of light in a multi-mode optical fiber ( type of optical fiber mostly used for communication over ... more

Petroff's Law - Bearing coefficient of friction

In the design of fluid bearings, the Sommerfeld number (S), or bearing characteristic number, is a dimensionless quantity used extensively in hydrodynamic ... more

Tension to restrain a floating object

Archimedes’ principle states that “Any object, wholly or partially immersed in a fluid, is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the ... more

Fraunhofer diffraction (Diffraction by a slit of infinite depth)

In optics, the Fraunhofer diffraction equation is used to model the diffraction of waves when the diffraction pattern is viewed at a long distance from the ... more

Normal force for a sinking object settles on the solid floor

When a sinking in a fluid object settles on the solid floor, it experiences a normal force.

... more

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