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Sagnac Effect - TIme Difference

The Sagnac effect (also called Sagnac interference), named after French physicist Georges Sagnac, is a phenomenon encountered in interferometry that is ... more

Angular resolution (by a telescope array)

The highest angular resolutions can be achieved by arrays of telescopes called astronomical interferometers: These instruments can achieve angular ... more

Laser rangefinder - distance realtive to phase delay and angular frequency

A laser rangefinder is a rangefinder that uses a laser beam to determine the distance to an object. The most common form of laser rangefinder operates on ... more

Fraunhofer diffraction (Diffraction by a double slit)

In optics, the Fraunhofer diffraction equation is used to model the diffraction of waves when the diffraction pattern is viewed at a long distance from the ... more

Rayleigh Scattering Cross-Section

Rayleigh scattering (pronounced /ˈreɪli/ RAY-lee), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic ... more

Wavelength - Sinusoidal Wave

In physics, the wavelength of a sinusoidal wave is the spatial period of the wave—the distance over which the wave’s shape repeats, and the inverse ... more

Angular resolution

Angular resolution or spatial resolution describes the ability of any image-forming device such as an optical or radio telescope, a microscope, a camera, ... more

Rayleigh Scattering - Intensity of Light

Rayleigh scattering (pronounced /ˈreɪli/ RAY-lee), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic ... more

Rayleigh Scattering - Intensity of Light from molecules

Rayleigh scattering (pronounced /ˈreɪli/ RAY-lee), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic ... more

Bragg's Law

In physics, Bragg’s law, or Wulff–Bragg’s condition, a special case of Laue diffraction, gives the angles for coherent and incoherent ... more

Precession - (Torque-induced - Classical Newtonian)

Precession is a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body. In an appropriate reference frame it can be defined as a change in the ... more

Refarctive index (absence of attenuation in vacuum)

When an electromagnetic wave travels through a medium in which it gets attenuated (this is called an “opaque” or “attenuating” ... more

Bragg's Law - Lattice Spacing in Cubic Systems

In physics, Bragg’s law, or Wulff–Bragg’s condition, a special case of Laue diffraction, gives the angles for coherent and incoherent ... more

Vacuum wavelength

When an electromagnetic wave travels through a medium in which it gets attenuated (this is called an “opaque” or “attenuating” ... more

Malus' law in X-ray (relavistic form)

A polarizer or polariser is an optical filter that passes light of a specific polarization and blocks waves of other polarizations.
When a perfect ... more

Energy of a Photon

A photon is an elementary particle, the quantum of light and all other forms of electromagnetic radiation, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic ... more

Snell's law (velocities)

Snell’s law (also known as the Snell–Descartes law and the law of refraction) is a formula used to describe the relationship between the angles of ... more

Spatial resolution

The angular resolution may be converted into a spatial resolution,by multiplication of the angle (in radians) with the distance to the object. For a ... more

Period of Precession - (Torque-induced - Classical Newtonian)

Precession is a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body. In an appropriate reference frame it can be defined as a change in the ... more

Refractive Index ( absolute index of refraction )

The refractive index or index of refraction of a substance is a dimensionless number that describes how light, or any other radiation, propagates through ... more

Acousto-optic deflector

An acousto-optic deflector spatially controls the optical beam. In the operation of an Acoustic-optic deflector the power driving the acoustic transducer ... more

Arbitrary Cherenkov emission angle

Cherenkov radiation, also known as Vavilov–Cherenkov radiation,[a] is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle (such as an electron) ... more

Doppler radar -Frequency variation

A Doppler radar is a specialized radar that makes use of the Doppler effect to produce velocity data about objects at a distance. It does this by beaming a ... more

Radiation Pressure by Reflection (using particle model: photons)

Radiation pressure is the pressure exerted upon any surface exposed to electromagnetic radiation. Radiation pressure implies an interaction between ... more

Compton scattering

Compton scattering is an inelastic scattering of a photon by a free charged particle, usually an electron. It results in a decrease in energy (increase in ... more

Laser rangefinder - distance realtive to wavelength and number of cycle

A laser rangefinder is a rangefinder that uses a laser beam to determine the distance to an object. The most common form of laser rangefinder operates on ... more

Critical Speed of a Rotating Shaft - Rayleigh–Ritz method

In solid mechanics, in the field of rotordynamics, the critical speed is the theoretical angular velocity that excites the natural frequency of a rotating ... more

Angular frequency for electromagnetic waves in vacuum

Plane waves in vacuum are the simplest case of wave propagation: no geometric constraint, no interaction with a transmitting medium. For electromagnetic ... more

Angular resolution (by a single telescope)

Point-like sources separated by an angle smaller than the angular resolution cannot be resolved. A single optical telescope may have an angular resolution ... more

Thermal de Broglie wavelength (Massless particles)

The thermal de Broglie wavelength is the average de Broglie wavelength of the gas particles in an ideal gas at the specified temperature. We can take the ... more

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