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Margin of safety (measure of structural capacity)

Many government agencies and industries (such as aerospace) require the use of a margin of safety (MoS or M.S.) to describe the ratio of the strength of ... more

Gravitational Potential (spherical symmetry)

Within a uniform spherical body of radius R and density ρ the gravitational force g inside the sphere varies linearly with distance r from the center, ... more

Fracture of ductile materials (Dissipated energy)

In ductile materials, a plastic zone develops at the tip of the crack. The plastic loading and unloading cycle near the crack tip leads to the dissipation ... more

Auger electron spectroscopy - electron impact cross-section

Auger electron spectroscopy is a common analytical technique used specifically in the study of surfaces and, more generally, in the area of materials ... more


Infiltration is the process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil. Infiltration rate in soil science is a measure of the rate at which soil ... more

Stress in thin-walled pressure spherical vessels

Pressure vessels are held together against the gas pressure due to tensile forces within the walls of the container. Stress in a shallow-walled pressure ... more

Sound Power Emitted

Sound power or acoustic power is a measure of sound energy per time unit. It is the power of the sound force on a surface of the medium of propagation of ... more

Lateral earth active pressure (Rankine theory for horizontal backfill)

Lateral earth pressure is the pressure that soil exerts in the horizontal direction. Rankine’s theory, is a stress field solution that predicts active and ... more

Griffith's criterion in Linear elastic fracture mechanics (stress intensity factor)

Fracture mechanics is the field of mechanics concerned with the study of the propagation of cracks in materials. It uses methods of analytical solid ... more

Dalton's law - Volume-based concentration

The formula provides a way to determine the volume-based concentration of any individual gaseous component.

Dalton’s law is not strictly ... more

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