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Thermal resistance due to fouling deposits (general)

Often during their use, heat exchangers collect a layer of fouling on the surface which, in addition to potentially contaminating a stream, reduces the ... more

Coefficient Of Performance for a non perfectly reversible cooler

Pulse tube cryocooler(or refrigerator) can be made without moving parts in the low temperature part of the device, making the cooler suitable for a wide ... more

Specific absorption rate - with Current density

Specific absorption rate (SAR) is a measure of the rate at which energy is absorbed by the human body when exposed to a radio ... more

R-value (insulation) of a multi-layered installation - U.S. units

The R-value is a measure of thermal resistance, or ability of heat to transfer from hot to cold, through materials (such as insulation) and assemblies of ... more

Borda–Carnot equation (for open channel flows)

In fluid dynamics the Borda–Carnot equation is an empirical description of the mechanical energy losses of the fluid due to a (sudden) flow expansion. The ... more

Van der Waals equation of state

The van der Waals equation may be considered as the ideal gas law, “improved” due to two independent reasons: Molecules are thought as ... more

NTU method - heat capacity ratio

The Number of Transfer Units (NTU) Method is used to calculate the rate of heat transfer in heat exchangers (especially counter ... more

Boltzmann's Entropy Formula

In statistical mechanics, Boltzmann’s equation is a probability equation relating the entropy S of an ideal gas to the quantity W, which is the ... more

Redlich-Kwong (b - constant)

Introduced in 1949, the Redlich-Kwong equation of state was a considerable improvement over other equations of the time. It is still of interest primarily ... more

Redlich-Kwong (a - constant)

Introduced in 1949, the Redlich-Kwong equation of state was a considerable improvement over other equations of the time. It is still of interest primarily ... more

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