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Inverse-square law

The inverse-square law, in physics, is any physical law stating that a specified physical quantity or intensity is inversely proportional to the square of ... more

Numerical Aperture

In optics, the numerical aperture (NA) of an optical system is a dimensionless number that characterizes the range of angles over which the system can ... more

Gaussian beam (beam width at a distance equal to the Rayleigh range)

In optics, a Gaussian beam is a beam of electromagnetic radiation whose transverse electric field and intensity (irradiance) distributions are well ... more

Photoacoustic Doppler effect

The photoacoustic Doppler effect is one specific kind of Doppler effect, which occurs when an intensity modulated light wave induces a photoacoustic wave ... more

Signal Attenuation

In physics, attenuation (in some contexts also called extinction) is the gradual loss in intensity of any kind of flux through a medium. For instance, dark ... more

Temprature of a planet

Black-body radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by ... more

Cross Section (discrete events)

The cross section is an effective area that quantifies the intrinsic likelihood of a scattering event when an incident beam strikes a target object, made ... more

Luminosity for a black body

In astronomy, luminosity is the total amount of energy emitted by a star, galaxy, or other astronomical object per unit time. It is related to the ... more

Tunnel Ionization - DC

Tunnel ionization is a process in which electrons in an atom (or a molecule) pass through the potential barrier and escape from the atom (or molecule). In ... more

Radiation Pressure by Absorption (using classical electromagnetism: waves)

Radiation pressure is the pressure exerted upon any surface exposed to electromagnetic radiation. Radiation pressure implies an interaction between ... more

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