A Bingham plastic is a viscoplastic material that behaves as a rigid body at low stresses but flows as a viscous fluid at high stress. It is named after ... more
In fluid flow, friction loss (or skin friction) is the loss of pressure or “head” that occurs in pipe or duct flow due to the effect of the fluid’s ... more
Although convective heat transfer can be derived analytically through dimensional analysis, exact analysis of the boundary layer, approximate integral ... more
For flow in a pipe or tube, the Reynolds number is generally defined as presented here.
For shapes such as squares, rectangular or annular ducts ... more
A Newtonian fluid is a fluid in which the viscous stresses arising from its flow, at every point, are proportional to the local strain rate — the rate of ... more
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