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Intensity of unpolarized light (Malus' law)

Light as one type of electromagnetic (EM) wave, is a transverse wave, consisting of varying electric and magnetic fields that oscillate perpendicular to ... more

Bragg's Law - Lattice Spacing in Cubic Systems

In physics, Bragg’s law, or Wulff–Bragg’s condition, a special case of Laue diffraction, gives the angles for coherent and incoherent ... more

Malus' law in X-ray (relavistic form)

A polarizer or polariser is an optical filter that passes light of a specific polarization and blocks waves of other polarizations.
When a perfect ... more

Area Moment of Inertia - Filled Right Triangle

The second moment of area, also known as moment of inertia of plane area, area moment of inertia, polar moment of area or second area moment, is a ... more

Optimum HDTV viewing distance

Optimum HDTV viewing distance is the distance that provides the viewer with the optimum immersive visual ... more

Alfvén velocity

In plasma physics, an Alfvén wave, named after Hannes Alfvén, is a type of magnetohydrodynamic wave in which ions oscillate in response to a restoring ... more

Wave shoaling height

In fluid dynamics, wave shoaling is the effect by which surface waves entering shallower water change in wave height. It is caused by the fact that the ... more

Alfvén velocity (in SI)

In plasma physics, an Alfvén wave, named after Hannes Alfvén, is a type of magnetohydrodynamic wave in which ions oscillate in response to a restoring ... more

Reflection coefficient (wave normal incidence)

At the boundary between media of different acoustic impedances, some of the wave energy is reflected and some is transmitted. The greater the difference in ... more

Angular resolution (by a microscope)

The resolution R (here measured as a distance, not to be confused with the angular resolution of a previous subsection) depends on the angular aperture ... more

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