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Prandtl–Meyer expansion fan - Prandtl–Meyer function

A supersonic expansion fan, technically known as Prandtl–Meyer expansion fan, is a centred expansion process that occurs when a supersonic flow turns ... more

Darcy friction factor - Blasius correlation with correction for curved or helically coiled tubes

In fluid dynamics, the Darcy friction factor formulae are equations that allow the calculation of the Darcy friction factor, a dimensionless quantity used ... more

Oblique Shock

An oblique shock wave, unlike a normal shock, is inclined with respect to the incident upstream flow direction. It will occur when a supersonic flow ... more

Characteristic Length

In physics, a characteristic length is an important dimension that defines the scale of a physical system. Often, such a length is used as an input to a ... more

Hemispherical Reflectance

Reflectance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in reflecting radiant energy. It is the fraction of incident electromagnetic power that is ... more

Worksheet 324

The main span of San Francisco’s Golden Gate Bridge is 1275 m long at its coldest. The bridge is exposed to temperatures ranging from –15ºC to 40ºC . (a) What is its change in length between these temperatures? Assume that the bridge is made entirely of steel.


Use the equation for linear thermal expansion to calculate the change in length , ΔL . Use the coefficient of linear expansion, α ,for steel from Table 13.2, and note that the change in temperature, ΔT , is 55ºC

Thermal Expansion - Linear

(b) convert the change in temperature if Kelvin and Fahrenheit degrees. **
**this section is not included in the Reference material

Celsius <-> Kelvin
Celsius <-> Fahrenheit


Although not large compared with the length of the bridge, this change in length is observable. It is generally spread over many expansion joints so that the expansion at each joint is small.

Reference : OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.
Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Knoop hardness test

The Knoop hardness test /kəˈnuːp/ is a microhardness test – a test for mechanical hardness used particularly for very brittle materials or thin sheets, ... more

NPN bipolar transistor ( Early Effect)

A bipolar junction transistor (BJT or bipolar transistor) is a type of transistor that relies on the contact of two types of ... more

Thermal resistance due to fouling deposits

Often during their use, heat exchangers collect a layer of fouling on the surface which, in addition to potentially contaminating a stream, reduces the ... more

Langmuir equation

The Langmuir equation (also known as the Langmuir isotherm, Langmuir adsorption equation or Hill-Langmuir equation) relates the coverage or adsorption of ... more

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