Area of the spherical zone
Spherical zone is the surface of the solid defined by cutting a sphere with a pair of parallel planes excluding the top and bottom bases. The area can be
Ripple factor (choke)
For the root mean square value of the ripple voltage, the calculation is more involved as the shape of the ripple waveform has a bearing on the result.
In thermodynamics, the reduced properties of a fluid are a set of state variables normalized by the fluid’s state properties at its critical point.