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Forward osmosis (FO) is an osmotic process that, like reverse osmosis (RO), uses a semi-permeable membrane to effect separation of water from dissolved ... more

The second moment of area, also known as moment of inertia of plane area, area moment of inertia, polar moment of area or second area moment, is a ... more

In fluid dynamics the Borda–Carnot equation is an empirical description of the mechanical energy losses of the fluid due to a (sudden) flow expansion. The ... more

In materials science, a general rule of mixtures is a weighted mean used to predict various properties of a composite material made up of continuous and ... more

The Number of Transfer Units (NTU) Method is used to calculate the rate of heat transfer in heat exchangers (especially counter ... more

Trapezoid is a convex quadrilateral with only one pair of parallel sides. The parallel sides are called the bases of the trapezoid and the other two sides ... more

Peukert’s law, presented by the German scientist Wilhelm Peukert in 1897, expresses the capacity of a battery in terms of the rate at which it is ... more

In optics, the Fraunhofer diffraction equation is used to model the diffraction of waves when the diffraction pattern is viewed at a long distance from the ... more

Number density is an intensive quantity used to describe the degree of concentration of countable objects. Volume number density is the number of specified ... more

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