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Hawking radiation energy of black-body (Planck) spectrum

black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence. A black hole ... more

Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution (Probability density function)

In physics, particularly statistical mechanics, the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution or Maxwell speed distribution describes particle speeds in idealized ... more

Mach Number (subsonic compressible flow)

In fluid mechanics, Mach number (M or Ma) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of speed of an object moving through a fluid and the local ... more

Thermal de Broglie wavelength (Massive Particles)

The thermal de Broglie wavelength is the average de Broglie wavelength of the gas particles in an ideal gas at the specified temperature. We can take the ... more

Solar cell - current delivered by the illuminated diode

Operation of a solar cell can be understood from the equivalent circuit at right. Light, of sufficient energy (greater than the bandgap of the material), ... more

Specific gas constant

The ideal gas constant, denoted by the symbol R or R) is a physical constant which is featured in many fundamental equations in the physical sciences, ... more

Saturated Adiabatic Lapse Rate

The lapse rate is defined as the rate at which atmospheric temperature decreases with increase in altitude. The terminology arises from the word lapse in ... more

Gay-Lussac's Law (Pressure-temperature law)

The pressure of a gas of fixed mass and fixed volume is directly proportional to the gas’ absolute temperature. If a gas’s temperature ... more

Density ( temperature dependence)

The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume. The density of a material varies with temperature ... more

Collision Frequency

Collision theory is a theory proposed independently by Max Trautz in 1916 and William Lewis in 1918, that qualitatively explains how chemical reactions ... more

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