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Half Sphere Mass

A sphere is defined mathematically as the set of points that are all the same distance r from a given point in three-dimensional space. This distance r is ... more

Spectral Exitance (real surface)

The spectral exitance of a real surface around a given frequency or wavelength, according to the Lambert’s cosine law and the Planck’s law, is ... more

Peng–Robinson equation of state (b component)

refer to Peng–Robinson equation of state.

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Mach Number

In fluid mechanics, Mach number (M or Ma) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of speed of an object moving through a fluid and the local ... more

Collision between electron and ion (The mean free path)

Ionization is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions. Ionization can ... more

Hot Air Balloon Lift

The hot air balloon is the oldest successful human-carrying flight technology. The first hot-air balloon flown in the United States was launched from the ... more

Concentric tube heat exchanger - Required length

Concentric Tube (or Pipe) Heat Exchangers are used in a variety of industries for purposes such as material processing, food preparation, and ... more

Reduced specific volume

In thermodynamicsIn thermodynamics, the reduced properties of a fluid are a set of state variables normalized by the fluid’s state properties at its ... more

Rayleigh number (for geophysical applications - related to bottom heating of the mantle from the core)

In fluid mechanics, the Rayleigh number (Ra) for a fluid is a dimensionless number associated with buoyancy-driven flow, also known as free convection or ... more

Diffusion coefficient (Mass diffusivity) for solids

Diffusivity or diffusion coefficient is a proportionality constant between the molar flux due to molecular diffusion and the gradient in the concentration ... more

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