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Hot Air Balloon Lift

The hot air balloon is the oldest successful human-carrying flight technology. The first hot-air balloon flown in the United States was launched from the ... more

Collision between electron and ion (The mean free path)

Ionization is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions. Ionization can ... more

Half Sphere Mass

A sphere is defined mathematically as the set of points that are all the same distance r from a given point in three-dimensional space. This distance r is ... more

Inverse-square law gravitational field ( free-fall time for two point objects on a radial path)

Two objects in space orbiting each other in the absence of other forces are in free fall around each other. The motion of two objects moving radially ... more

Reduced specific volume

In thermodynamicsIn thermodynamics, the reduced properties of a fluid are a set of state variables normalized by the fluid’s state properties at its ... more

Concentric tube heat exchanger - Required length

Concentric Tube (or Pipe) Heat Exchangers are used in a variety of industries for purposes such as material processing, food preparation, and ... more

Rayleigh number (for geophysical applications - related to bottom heating of the mantle from the core)

In fluid mechanics, the Rayleigh number (Ra) for a fluid is a dimensionless number associated with buoyancy-driven flow, also known as free convection or ... more

Diffusion coefficient (Mass diffusivity) for solids

Diffusivity or diffusion coefficient is a proportionality constant between the molar flux due to molecular diffusion and the gradient in the concentration ... more

Luminosity of a Star

In astronomy, luminosity is the total amount of energy emitted by a star, galaxy, or other astronomical object per unit time. It is related to brightness, ... more

Sarnoff's Law

David Sarnoff (Belarusian: Даві́д Сарно́ў, Russian: Дави́д Сарно́в, February 27, 1891 – December 12, 1971) was an American businessman and pioneer of ... more

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