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Center of mass - Barycentric coordinates

In physics, the center of mass of a distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to ... more

Vis-Viva Equation

In astrodynamics, the vis viva equation, also referred to as orbital energy conservation equation, is one of the fundamental equations that govern the ... more

Worksheet 334

In a video game design, a map shows the location of other characters relative to the player, who is situated at the origin, and the direction they are facing. A character currently shows on the map at coordinates (-3, 5). If the player rotates counterclockwise by 20 degrees, then the objects in the map will correspondingly rotate 20 degrees clockwise. Find the new coordinates of the character.

To rotate the position of the character, we can imagine it as a point on a circle, and we will change the angle of the point by 20 degrees. To do so, we first need to find the radius of this circle and the original angle.

Drawing a right triangle inside the circle, we can find the radius using the Pythagorean Theorem:

Pythagorean theorem (right triangle)

To find the angle, we need to decide first if we are going to find the acute angle of the triangle, the reference angle, or if we are going to find the angle measured in standard position. While either approach will work, in this case we will do the latter. By applying the cosine function and using our given information we get

Cosine function
Subtraction

While there are two angles that have this cosine value, the angle of 120.964 degrees is in the second quadrant as desired, so it is the angle we were looking for.

Rotating the point clockwise by 20 degrees, the angle of the point will decrease to 100.964 degrees. We can then evaluate the coordinates of the rotated point

For x axis:

Cosine function

For y axis:

Sine function

The coordinates of the character on the rotated map will be (-1.109, 5.725)

Reference : PreCalculus: An Investigation of Functions,Edition 1.4 © 2014 David Lippman and Melonie Rasmussen
http://www.opentextbookstore.com/precalc/
Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/us/

Malus' law in X-ray (relavistic form)

A polarizer or polariser is an optical filter that passes light of a specific polarization and blocks waves of other polarizations.
When a perfect ... more

True anomaly - circular orbit with zero inclination

In celestial mechanics, true anomaly is an angular parameter that defines the position of a body moving along a Keplerian orbit. It is the angle between ... more

Vis-Viva Equation with standard gravitational parameter

In astrodynamics, the vis viva equation, also referred to as orbital energy conservation equation, is one of the fundamental equations that govern the ... more

Near branch of a hyperbola in polar coordinates with respect to a focal point

In mathematics, a hyperbola is a type of smooth curve, lying in a plane, defined by its geometric properties or by equations for which it is the solution ... more

Simple gear train with two gears (Torque ratio)

The gear ratio of a gear train, also known as its speed ratio, is the ratio of the angular velocity of the input gear to the angular velocity of the output ... more

Mechanical Efficiency (pumps)

Mechanical components – as transmission gear and bearings – generates a mechanical loss that reduces the power transferred from the motor shaft ... more

Volume of cone (by the diameter)

Description

A cone is an n-dimensional geometric shape that tapers smoothly from a base (usually flat and circular) to a point called the apex or ... more

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