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Carnot efficiency

The theoretical maximum efficiency of any heat engine depends only on the temperatures it operates between. This efficiency is usually derived using an ... more

Auger electron spectroscopy - emitted electron kinetic energy

Auger electron spectroscopy is a common analytical technique used specifically in the study of surfaces and, more generally, in the area of materials ... more

Schwarzschild radius

The Schwarzschild radius (sometimes historically referred to as the gravitational radius) is the radius of a sphere such that, if all the ... more

Binomial distribution

Binomial distribution, with parameters n and p, is the discrete probability distribution of the number of successes in a sequence of n independent yes/no ... more

Sarnoff's Law

David Sarnoff (Belarusian: Даві́д Сарно́ў, Russian: Дави́д Сарно́в, February 27, 1891 – December 12, 1971) was an American businessman and pioneer of ... more

Root mean square of phase-to-phase voltage

In mathematics, the root mean square , also known as the quadratic mean, is a statistical measure of the magnitude of a varying quantity. In a balanced ... more

Variance (regarding to the arithmetic mean)

The variance measures how far a set of numbers of n equally likely values is spread out. A small variance indicates that the data tend to be very close to ... more

Electrical conductivity (general definition)

Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is an intrinsic property that quantifies how ... more

Weighted arithmetic mean

The weighted mean is similar to an arithmetic mean (the most common type of average), where instead of each of the data points contributing equally to the ... more

Standard change of reaction in Gibbs free energy

Gibbs free energy is a thermodynamic potential that measures the “usefulness” or process-initiating work obtainable from a thermodynamic system ... more

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