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Richardson's law

Thermionic emission is the thermally induced flow of charge carriers from a surface or over a potential-energy barrier. This occurs because the thermal ... more

Specific absorption rate - with Current density

Specific absorption rate (SAR) is a measure of the rate at which energy is absorbed by the human body when exposed to a radio ... more

Alfvén velocity

In plasma physics, an Alfvén wave, named after Hannes Alfvén, is a type of magnetohydrodynamic wave in which ions oscillate in response to a restoring ... more

Luminous intensity for monochromatic light

Luminous intensity is a measure of the wavelength-weighted power emitted by a light source in a particular direction per unit solid angle, based on the ... more

Gaussian beam (beam width at a distance equal to the Rayleigh range)

In optics, a Gaussian beam is a beam of electromagnetic radiation whose transverse electric field and intensity (irradiance) distributions are well ... more

Sound Intensity in relation to the distance

Sound intensity or acoustic intensity is defined as the sound power per unit area. The usual context is the noise measurement of sound intensity in the air ... more

Force between two magnetic poles

The Gilbert model assumes that the magnetic forces between magnets are due to magnetic charges near the poles. This model produces good approximations that ... more

Radiant Exitance (real surface)

In radiometry, radiant exitance is the radiant flux emitted by a surface per unit area, and spectral exitance is the radiant exitance of a surface per unit ... more

Dalton's law - Volume-based concentration

The formula provides a way to determine the volume-based concentration of any individual gaseous component.

Dalton’s law is not strictly ... more

Electrical resistivity measurement of concrete

Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is an intrinsic property that quantifies how ... more

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