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Townsend avalanche (Townsend discharge)

The Townsend discharge is a gas ionization process where free electrons, accelerated by a sufficiently strong electric field, give rise to electrical ... more

Pump energy (centrifugal pump)

Centrifugal pumps are a sub-class of dynamic axis-symmetric work-absorbing turbo-machinery.The rotational energy typically comes from an engine or electric ... more

Binomial distribution

Binomial distribution, with parameters n and p, is the discrete probability distribution of the number of successes in a sequence of n independent yes/no ... more

Relations between polarization density and electric displacement field

In classical electromagnetism, polarization density (or electric polarization, or simply polarization) is the vector field that expresses the density of ... more

Relation between Polarization density and Electric field in various materials

In classical electromagnetism, polarization density is the vector field that expresses the density of permanent or induced electric dipole moments in a ... more

Functional residual capacity

Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) is the volume of air present in the lungs, specifically the parenchyma tissues, at the end of ... more

Electric flux (in a uniform field)

Electric flux is the rate of flow of the electric field through a given area. Electric flux is proportional to the number of electric field lines going ... more

Radiation Pressure by Reflection (using particle model: photons)

Radiation pressure is the pressure exerted upon any surface exposed to electromagnetic radiation. Radiation pressure implies an interaction between ... more

Hall coefficient

The Hall effect is the production of a voltage difference (the Hall voltage) across an electrical conductor, transverse to an electric current in the ... more

Miller's Rule

In optics, Miller’s rule is an empirical rule which gives an estimate of the order of magnitude of the nonlinear coefficient.

More formally, ... more

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