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Standard change of reaction in Gibbs free energy

Gibbs free energy is a thermodynamic potential that measures the “usefulness” or process-initiating work obtainable from a thermodynamic system ... more

Drift velocity in a current-carrying metallic conductor

The drift velocity is the average velocity that a particle, such as an electron, attains due to an electric field. In general, an electron will 'rattle ... more

Specific internal energy

Specific internal energy is the internal energy per unit mass.

... more

Density ( temperature dependence)

The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume. The density of a material varies with temperature ... more

Specific Gas Constant - related to the Boltzmann constant

The ideal gas constant, denoted by the symbol R or R) is a physical constant which is featured in many fundamental equations in the physical sciences, ... more

Worksheet 324

The main span of San Francisco’s Golden Gate Bridge is 1275 m long at its coldest. The bridge is exposed to temperatures ranging from –15ºC to 40ºC . (a) What is its change in length between these temperatures? Assume that the bridge is made entirely of steel.

Strategy

Use the equation for linear thermal expansion to calculate the change in length , ΔL . Use the coefficient of linear expansion, α ,for steel from Table 13.2, and note that the change in temperature, ΔT , is 55ºC

Thermal Expansion - Linear

(b) convert the change in temperature if Kelvin and Fahrenheit degrees. **
**this section is not included in the Reference material

Celsius <-> Kelvin
Celsius <-> Fahrenheit

Discussion

Although not large compared with the length of the bridge, this change in length is observable. It is generally spread over many expansion joints so that the expansion at each joint is small.

Reference : OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.
http://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/college-physics
Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Lateral earth active pressure (Rankine theory for horizontal backfill)

Lateral earth pressure is the pressure that soil exerts in the horizontal direction. Rankine’s theory, is a stress field solution that predicts active and ... more

Flow coefficient

The flow coefficient of a device is a relative measure of its efficiency at allowing fluid flow. It describes the relationship between the pressure drop ... more

Lateral earth active pressure (Rankine theory)

Lateral earth pressure is the pressure that soil exerts in the horizontal direction. Rankine’s theory, is a stress field solution that predicts ... more

Knudsen number (For a Boltzmann gas)

The Knudsen number (Kn) is a dimensionless number defined as the ratio of the molecular mean free path length to a representative physical length scale. ... more

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