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Lateral earth active pressure (Rankine theory for horizontal backfill)

Lateral earth pressure is the pressure that soil exerts in the horizontal direction. Rankine’s theory, is a stress field solution that predicts active and ... more

Y-Coordinate of the vertex, of the parabola of a Quadratic Function

Parabolas with axes of symmetry parallel to the y-axis have equations of the form y=ax^2+bx+c.
The x-coordinate and y-coordinate at the vertex can be ... more

Convective heat transfer coefficient with Nusselt number for Internal/turbulent flow

Although convective heat transfer can be derived analytically through dimensional analysis, exact analysis of the boundary layer, approximate integral ... more

Film temperature

In heat transfer and fluid dynamics, the film temperature is an approximation to the temperature of a fluid inside a convection boundary layer. It is ... more

Péclet number (for heat transfer)

The Péclet number (Pe) is a class of dimensionless numbers relevant in the study of transport phenomena in a continuum. It is named after the French ... more

Richardson's law

Thermionic emission is the thermally induced flow of charge carriers from a surface or over a potential-energy barrier. This occurs because the thermal ... more

Temprature of a planet

Black-body radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by ... more

Dittus-Boelter equation - Nusselt number

In heat transfer at a boundary (surface) within a fluid, the Nusselt number (Nu) is the ratio of convective to conductive heat transfer across (normal to) ... more

Carnot efficiency

The theoretical maximum efficiency of any heat engine depends only on the temperatures it operates between. This efficiency is usually derived using an ... more

Speed of sound in sea water (UNESCO equation)

The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit of time by a sound wave propagating through an elastic medium. The speed of sound in seawater depends ... more

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