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The coefficient Cw (used in the UNESCO equation, speed of sound in sea water), depends on the temperature and the pressure

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The Eulerâ€™s pump and turbine equations are most fundamental equations in the field of turbo-machinery. These equations govern the power, efficiencies and ... more

Although convective heat transfer can be derived analytically through dimensional analysis, exact analysis of the boundary layer, approximate integral ... more

Ionization is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions. Ionization can ... more

Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in volume in response to a change in temperature through heat transfer. For a solid, we can ignore ... more

The spectral exitance of a real surface around a given frequency or wavelength, according to the Lambert’s cosine law and the Planck’s law, is ... more

Landauer’s principle is a physical principle pertaining to the lower theoretical limit of energy consumption of computation. It holds that “any ... more

The rate of heat transfer between the bulk of the fluid inside the pipe and the pipe external surface is related to the pipe surface area, the wall ... more

Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or ... more

Vertical pressure variation is the variation in pressure as a function of elevation. The vertical variation is especially significant, as it results from ... more

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