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Convective heat transfer coefficient with Nusselt number for Internal/turbulent flow

Although convective heat transfer can be derived analytically through dimensional analysis, exact analysis of the boundary layer, approximate integral ... more

Van 't Hoff equation

The Van 't Hoff equation in chemical thermodynamics relates the change in the equilibrium constant, Keq, of a chemical equilibrium to the change in ... more

Collision between electron and ion (The mean free path)

Ionization is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions. Ionization can ... more

Volume thermal expansion coefficient

Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in volume in response to a change in temperature through heat transfer. For a solid, we can ignore ... more

Spectral Exitance (real surface)

The spectral exitance of a real surface around a given frequency or wavelength, according to the Lambert’s cosine law and the Planck’s law, is ... more

Carnot cycle

Every single thermodynamic system exists in a particular state. When a system is taken through a series of different states and finally returned to its ... more

Rayleigh Scattering Cross-Section

Rayleigh scattering (pronounced /ˈreɪli/ RAY-lee), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic ... more

Landauer's Principle

Landauer’s principle is a physical principle pertaining to the lower theoretical limit of energy consumption of computation. It holds that “any ... more

Heat transfer rate for a pipe with a fluid flowing inside.

The rate of heat transfer between the bulk of the fluid inside the pipe and the pipe external surface is related to the pipe surface area, the wall ... more

NTU method - NTU number

The Number of Transfer Units (NTU) Method is used to calculate the rate of heat transfer in heat exchangers (especially counter ... more

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