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Borda–Carnot equation (Sudden contraction of a pipe)

Borda–Carnot equation is an empirical description of the mechanical energy losses of the fluid due to a (sudden) flow expansion. It describes how the total ... more

Electrical resistivity (general definition)

Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is an intrinsic property that quantifies how ... more

Lateral earth active pressure (Rankine theory for horizontal backfill)

Lateral earth pressure is the pressure that soil exerts in the horizontal direction. Rankine’s theory, is a stress field solution that predicts active and ... more

Kozeny-Carman equation

The Kozeny–Carman equation (or Carman-Kozeny equation) is a relation used in the field of fluid dynamics to calculate the pressure drop of a fluid flowing ... more

Drift Velocity

The drift velocity is the average velocity that a particle, such as an electron, attains in a material due to an electric field. It can also be referred to ... more

Lateral earth active pressure (Rankine theory)

Lateral earth pressure is the pressure that soil exerts in the horizontal direction. Rankine’s theory, is a stress field solution that predicts ... more

Solar cell - current delivered by the illuminated diode

Operation of a solar cell can be understood from the equivalent circuit at right. Light, of sufficient energy (greater than the bandgap of the material), ... more

Electrostatic pressure

A conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of electrical current in one or more directions. On a conductor, a surface charge will ... more

Hall coefficient

The Hall effect is the production of a voltage difference (the Hall voltage) across an electrical conductor, transverse to an electric current in the ... more

Magnetic field of the straight wire

The magnetic field generated by the electric current, around a straight wire, is related to the electric current and the distance “r” from the ... more

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