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Electric Current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge. In electric circuits this charge is often carried by moving electrons in a wire. It can also be carried ... more

Magnetic susceptibility

The magnetic susceptibility is a dimensionless proportionality constant that indicates the degree of magnetization of a material in response to an applied ... more

Intensity of unpolarized light (Malus' law)

Light as one type of electromagnetic (EM) wave, is a transverse wave, consisting of varying electric and magnetic fields that oscillate perpendicular to ... more

Electrical mobility

Electrical mobility is the ability of charged particles (such as electrons or protons) to move through a medium in response to an electric field that is ... more

Permeability of a material to air flow

The maximum depressurisation for a dynamically insulated building is normally limited to 10 Pa in order to avoid doors slamming shut or difficulty in ... more


If the magnetic field is uniform and all other forces are absent, then the Lorentz force will cause a particle to undergo a constant acceleration ... more

Electromotive force - the charge

Electromotive force, abbreviated emf (denoted ℰ and measured in volts) is the electrical intensity or “pressure” developed by a source of ... more

Collision between electron and ion (The mean free path)

Ionization is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions. Ionization can ... more

Darcy's law

Describes the flow of a fluid through a porous medium, for slow, viscous flow. The total discharge, is equal to the product of the intrinsic permeability ... more

Refractive Index (electromagnetic radiation)

The refractive index is used for optics in Fresnel equations and Snell’s law; while the relative permittivity and permeability are used in ... more

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