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Diffusion is the net movement of a substance (e.g., an atom, ion or molecule) from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration. This is ... more

Security characteristic line (SCL) is a regression line, plotting performance of a particular security or portfolio against that ... more

In fluid mechanics, the Rayleigh number (Ra) for a fluid is a dimensionless number associated with buoyancy-driven flow, also known as free convection or ... more

In fluid mechanics, Mach number (M or Ma) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of speed of an object moving through a fluid and the local ... more

In thermodynamics, an isentropic process is an idealized thermodynamic process that is adiabatic and in which the work transfers of the system are ... more

Temperature difference – I-nodes model of an Earth spacecraft

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Planck’s law describes the electromagnetic radiation emitted from a black body at a certain temperature. Radiance and spectral radiance are measures ... more

Planck’s law describes the electromagnetic radiation emitted from a black body at a certain temperature. Radiance and spectral radiance are measures ... more

a) Calculate the gravitational potential energy stored in the pyramid, given its center of mass is at one-fourth its height.

b) Only a fraction of the workers lifted blocks; most were involved in support services such as building ramps, bringing food and water, and hauling blocks to the site. Calculate the efficiency of the workers who did the lifting, assuming there were 1000 of them and they consumed food energy at the rate of 300 Kcal/hour.

first we calculate the number of hours worked per year.

then we calculate the number of hours worked in the 20 years.

Then we calculate the energy consumed in 20 years knowing the energy consumed per hour and the total hours worked in 20 years.

The efficiency is the resulting potential energy divided by the consumed energy.

is a probabilistic argument used to estimate the number of active, communicative extraterrestrial civilizations in the Milky Way galaxy

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The awe‐inspiring Great Pyramid of Cheops was built more than 4500 years ago. Its square base, originally 230 m on a side, covered 13.1 acres, and it was 146 m high (H), with a mass of about 7×10^9 kg. (The pyramid’s dimensions are slightly different today due to quarrying and some sagging). Historians estimate that 20,000 workers spent 20 years to construct it, working 12-hour days, 330 days per year.