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Lateral earth active pressure (Rankine theory)

Lateral earth pressure is the pressure that soil exerts in the horizontal direction. Rankine’s theory, is a stress field solution that predicts ... more

Swamee-Aggarwal Equation

Although an exact analytical solution of the Buckingham-Reiner equation can be obtained because it is a fourth order polynomial equation in f, due to ... more

Diffusion Coefficient - related to Fick's laws of diffusion

Diffusion is the net movement of a substance (e.g., an atom, ion or molecule) from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration. This is ... more

Boyle's law

Boyle’s law is an experimental gas law which describes how the pressure of a gas tends to decrease as the volume of a gas increases. The absolute ... more

Worksheet 316

Calculate the change in length of the upper leg bone (the femur) when a 70.0 kg man supports 62.0 kg of his mass on it, assuming the bone to be equivalent to a uniform rod that is 45.0 cm long and 2.00 cm in radius.


The force is equal to the weight supported:

Force (Newton's second law)

and the cross-sectional area of the upper leg bone(femur) is:

Disk area

To find the change in length we use the Young’s modulus formula. The Young’s modulus reference value for a bone under compression is known to be 9×109 N/m2. Now,all quantities except ΔL are known. Thus:

Young's Modulus


This small change in length seems reasonable, consistent with our experience that bones are rigid. In fact, even the rather large forces encountered during strenuous physical activity do not compress or bend bones by large amounts. Although bone is rigid compared with fat or muscle, several of the substances listed in Table 5.3(see reference below) have larger values of Young’s modulus Y . In other words, they are more rigid.

This worksheet is a modified version of Example 5.4 page 188 found in :
OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.
Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Fick principle (calculation of cardiac output)

The essence of the Fick principle is that blood flow to an organ can be calculated using a marker substance if the following information is known:
... more


The density of a material is defined as its mass per unit volume. For a pure substance the density has the same numerical value as its mass concentration. ... more

Tritration ( concentration of the analyte)

Titration, also known as titrimetry or volumetric analysis, is a common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis that is used to determine the ... more

Oblique Shock

An oblique shock wave, unlike a normal shock, is inclined with respect to the incident upstream flow direction. It will occur when a supersonic flow ... more

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