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In probability theory, the normal (or Gaussian) distribution is a very commonly occurring continuous probability distribution—a function that tells the ... more

The coefficient of restitution (COR) of two colliding objects is typically a positive real number between 0.0 and 1.0 ... more

In probability theory, the normal (or Gaussian) distribution is a very commonly occurring continuous probability distribution—a function that tells the ... more

The terms “relative change” and “relative difference” are used to compare two quantities while taking into account the ... more

Optical magnification is the ratio between the apparent size of an object (or its size in an image) and its true size, and thus it is a dimensionless ... more

A triangle wave is a non-sinusoidal waveform named for its triangular shape. It is a periodic, piecewise linear, continuous real function. Like a square ... more

The Hall effect is the production of a voltage difference (the Hall voltage) across an electrical conductor, transverse to an electric current in the ... more

The basic principle of the Vickers hardness test, as with all common measures of hardness, is to observe the questioned material’s ability to resist ... more

Hydraulic head or piezometric head is a specific measurement of liquid pressure above a geodetic datum. The hydraulic gradient is a vector gradient between ... more

Surface runoff is the water flow that occurs when the soil is infiltrated to full capacity and excess water from rain. The runoff is depended on the ... more

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