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Airy pattern formed by A Circular Laser Beam

In optics, a Gaussian beam is a beam of electromagnetic radiation whose transverse electric field and intensity (irradiance) distributions are well ... more

Relation between Polarization density and Electric field in various materials

In classical electromagnetism, polarization density is the vector field that expresses the density of permanent or induced electric dipole moments in a ... more

Electron's speed at any radius

The electrons can only orbit stably, without radiating, in certain orbits at a certain discrete set of distances from the nucleus. These orbits are ... more

Solar Cell - Fill Factor (with maximum power point)

Solar cell efficiency is the ratio of the electrical output of a solar cell to the incident energy in the form of sunlight. The energy conversion ... more

Mechanical Advantage - Law of Lever

Mechanical advantage is a measure of the force amplification achieved by using a tool, mechanical device or machine system. Ideally, the device preserves ... more

Intensity - Mathematical description

In physics, intensity is the power transferred per unit area, where the area is measured on the plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the ... more

Larmor formula

The Larmor formula is used to calculate the total power radiated by a non relativistic point charge as it accelerates or decelerates. This is used in the ... more

Hemispherical Reflectance

Reflectance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in reflecting radiant energy. It is the fraction of incident electromagnetic power that is ... more

Electron's energy

n atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in ... more

Redshift (based on wavelength)

In physics, redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the ... more

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