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Electric flux (in a uniform field)

Electric flux is the rate of flow of the electric field through a given area. Electric flux is proportional to the number of electric field lines going ... more

Gauss's law

In physics, Gauss’s law, also known as Gauss’s flux theorem, is a law relating the distribution of electric charge to the resulting electric ... more

Radiation Pressure by Absorption (using classical electromagnetism: waves)

Radiation pressure is the pressure exerted upon any surface exposed to electromagnetic radiation. Radiation pressure implies an interaction between ... more

Magnetic flux through a solenoid

A solenoid is a coil wound into a tightly packed helix. In physics, the term refers specifically to a long, thin loop of wire, often wrapped around a ... more

Helmholtz coil ( the magnetic field at the center point)

A Helmholtz coil is a device for producing a region of nearly uniform magnetic field. It consists of two identical solenoid electromagnets on the same ... more

Hopkinson's law (MMF)

where R is the electrical resistance of that material. Hopkinson’s law is a counterpart to Ohm’s law used in magnetic circuits. In electronic ... more

Heat transfer coefficient

Heat flux or thermal flux is the rate of heat energy transfer through a given surface, per unit surface. The heat transfer coefficient or film coefficient, ... more

Brushed DC electric motor - Torque

A brushed DC motor is an internally commutated electric motor designed to be run from a direct current power source. Brushed motors were the first ... more

Brushed DC electric motor - Speed

A brushed DC motor is an internally commutated electric motor designed to be run from a direct current power source. Brushed motors were the first ... more

Hemispherical Reflectance

Reflectance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in reflecting radiant energy. It is the fraction of incident electromagnetic power that is ... more

Faraday - Lenz law (for a tightly wound coil of wire)

Electromagnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force across a conductor when it is exposed to a varying magnetic field. The induced ... more

Faraday's law of induction

Electromagnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force across a conductor when it is exposed to a varying magnetic field. The induced ... more

Radio luminosity

In astronomy, luminosity is the total amount of energy emitted by a star, galaxy, or other astronomical object per unit time. It is related to the ... more

Force between two nearby magnetized surfaces (relative to flux density)

The Gilbert model assumes that the magnetic forces between magnets are due to magnetic charges near the poles. This model produces good approximations that ... more

Photometric ( luminous) exposure

In photography, exposure is the amount of light per unit area (the image plane illuminance times the exposure time) reaching a photographic film, as ... more

Auger electron spectroscopy - Total yield

Auger electron spectroscopy is a common analytical technique used specifically in the study of surfaces and, more generally, in the area of materials ... more

Cross Section (flux)

The cross section is an effective area that quantifies the intrinsic likelihood of a scattering event when an incident beam strikes a target object, made ... more

Water flux (Forward osmosis application)

Forward osmosis (FO) is an osmotic process that, like reverse osmosis (RO), uses a semi-permeable membrane to effect separation of water from dissolved ... more

Hemispherical attenuation coefficient

Attenuation coefficient or narrow beam attenuation coefficient of the volume of a material characterizes how easily it can be penetrated by a beam of ... more

Counter EMF of a motor

Counter-electromotive force (abbreviated counter EMF or simply CEMF), also known as back electromotive ... more

Force between two bar magnets

The Gilbert model assumes that the magnetic forces between magnets are due to magnetic charges near the poles. This model produces good approximations that ... more

Rayleigh number (for a uniform wall heating flux)

In fluid mechanics, the Rayleigh number (Ra) for a fluid is a dimensionless number associated with buoyancy-driven flow, also known as free convection or ... more

Solute flux (Forward osmosis)

Forward osmosis (FO) is an osmotic process that, like reverse osmosis (RO), uses a semi-permeable membrane to effect separation of water from dissolved ... more

Thom correlation

There exist simple fluid-specific correlations for heat transfer coefficient in boiling. The Thom correlation is for the flow of boiling water (subcooled ... more

Magnetic permeance

Magnetic reluctance, or magnetic resistance, is a concept used in the analysis of magnetic circuits. It is analogous to resistance in an electrical ... more

Heat flux (Advection)

Heat transfer describes the exchange of thermal energy, between physical systems depending on the temperature and pressure, by dissipating heat. The ... more

Cross Section (discrete events)

The cross section is an effective area that quantifies the intrinsic likelihood of a scattering event when an incident beam strikes a target object, made ... more

Reluctance

Magnetic reluctance, or magnetic resistance, is analogous to resistance in an electrical circuit (although it does not dissipate magnetic energy). In ... more

Radiation Pressure by Reflection (using particle model: photons)

Radiation pressure is the pressure exerted upon any surface exposed to electromagnetic radiation. Radiation pressure implies an interaction between ... more

Radiant Exitance (real surface)

In radiometry, radiant exitance is the radiant flux emitted by a surface per unit area, and spectral exitance is the radiant exitance of a surface per unit ... more

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