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Noise Power

Noise figure (NF) and noise factor (F) are measures of degradation of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), caused by components in a ... more

Data Link Design

Eb/N0 (the energy per bit to noise power spectral density ratio) is an important parameter in digital communication or data transmission. It is a ... more

Tortuosity - alternative method

Tortuosity is a property of curve being tortuous (twisted; having many turns). There have been several attempts to quantify this property. ... more

Ricco's Law

Several laws describe a human’s ability to visually detect targets on a uniform background. One such law is Riccò's law, discovered by astronomer ... more

Tip Speed ratio

The tip-speed ratio, λ, or TSR for wind turbines is the ratio between the tangential speed of the tip of a blade and the actual ... more

Shannon–Hartley theorem

In information theory, the Shannon–Hartley theorem tells the maximum rate at which information can be transmitted over a communications channel of a ... more

Sound Intensity in relation to the distance

Sound intensity or acoustic intensity is defined as the sound power per unit area. The usual context is the noise measurement of sound intensity in the air ... more

Solar Cell - Fill Factor (with maximum power point)

Solar cell efficiency is the ratio of the electrical output of a solar cell to the incident energy in the form of sunlight. The energy conversion ... more

Solar Cell - Fill Factor

Solar cell efficiency is the ratio of the electrical output of a solar cell to the incident energy in the form of sunlight. The energy conversion ... more

Miles Equation

In 1954, Miles developed his version of this equation for GRMS as he was researching fatigue failure of aircraft structural ... more

Mechanical Advantage - Meshing Gears

Mechanical advantage is a measure of the force amplification achieved by using a tool, mechanical device or machine system. Ideally, the device preserves ... more

Solar Cell Efficiency

Solar cell efficiency is the ratio of the electrical output of a solar cell to the incident energy in the form of sunlight. The energy conversion ... more

Power gain

In electronics, gain is a measure of the ability of a two-port circuit (often an amplifier) to increase the power or amplitude of a signal from the input ... more

Characteristic equation of a solar cell - function of output current and voltage

The theory of solar cells explains the process by which light energy in photons is converted into electric current when the photons strike a suitable ... more

Compound machines (mechanical advantage)

A compound machine is a machine formed from a set of simple machines connected in series with the output force of one providing the input force to the ... more

Mechanical Advantage - Law of Lever

Mechanical advantage is a measure of the force amplification achieved by using a tool, mechanical device or machine system. Ideally, the device preserves ... more

Torque for a desired preload ( fasteners )

Bolted joints are one of the most common elements in construction and machine design. They consist of fasteners that capture and join other parts, and are ... more

Gauge factor

Strain gauge is a device used to measure strain on an object. A strain is a normalized measure of deformation representing the displacement between ... more

Power gain (in nepers)

In electronics, gain is a measure of the ability of a two-port circuit (often an amplifier) to increase the power or amplitude of a signal from the input ... more

Current gain

In electronics, gain is a measure of the ability of a two-port circuit (often an amplifier) to increase the power or amplitude of a signal from the input ... more

Voltage gain

In electronics, gain is a measure of the ability of a two-port circuit (often an amplifier) to increase the power or amplitude of a signal from the input ... more

Compound machines (efficiency)

A simple machine is a mechanical device that changes the direction or magnitude of a force. In general, they can be defined as the simplest mechanisms that ... more

Working Load Limit

Safe Working Load (SWL) sometimes stated as the Normal Working Load (NWL) is the maximum safe force ... more

Richardson Number - thermal convection

The Richardson number (Ri) is named after Lewis Fry Richardson (1881 – 1953). It is the dimensionless number that expresses the ratio of potential to ... more

Thermodynamic efficiency (Rankine cycle)

Rankine cycle is a model that is used to predict the performance of steam engines. The Rankine cycle is an idealised thermodynamic cycle of a heat engine ... more

Rayleigh Number

In fluid mechanics, the Rayleigh number (Ra) for a fluid is a dimensionless number associated with buoyancy driven flow (also known as free convection or ... more

Ripple voltage (full-wave rectifier))

The most common meaning of ripple in electrical science is the small unwanted residual periodic variation of the direct current (DC) output of a power ... more

Ripple voltage (half-wave rectifier))

The most common meaning of ripple in electrical science is the small unwanted residual periodic variation of the direct current (DC) output of a power ... more

Νatural draught flow rate (draft flow)

The structure which provides ventilation for hot flue gases or smoke from a boiler, stove, furnace or fireplace to the outside atmosphere causes a flow ... more

Coefficient Of Performance for a perfectly reversible cooler

Pulse tube cryocooler(or refrigerator) can be made without moving parts in the low temperature part of the device, making the cooler suitable for a wide ... more

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