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Radiation Pressure by Reflection (using particle model: photons)

Radiation pressure is the pressure exerted upon any surface exposed to electromagnetic radiation. Radiation pressure implies an interaction between ... more

Photoacoustic Doppler effect

The photoacoustic Doppler effect is one specific kind of Doppler effect, which occurs when an intensity modulated light wave induces a photoacoustic wave ... more

Compton scattering

Compton scattering is an inelastic scattering of a photon by a free charged particle, usually an electron. It results in a decrease in energy (increase in ... more

Energy of a Photon

A photon is an elementary particle, the quantum of light and all other forms of electromagnetic radiation, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic ... more

Stark–Einstein Law

he Stark–Einstein law is named after German-born physicists Johannes Stark and Albert Einstein, who independently formulated the law between 1908 and 1913. ... more

Photoelectric Effect - max kinetic energy of an ejected electron

The photoelectric effect is the observation that many metals emit electrons when light shines upon them. Electrons emitted in this manner may be called ... more

Radiation Pressure by Absorption (using classical electromagnetism: waves)

Radiation pressure is the pressure exerted upon any surface exposed to electromagnetic radiation. Radiation pressure implies an interaction between ... more

Compton wavelength

The Compton wavelength is a quantum mechanical property of a particle. The Compton wavelength of a particle is equivalent to the wavelength of a photon ... more

Wavenumber

In the physical sciences, the wavenumber (also wave number) is the spatial frequency of a wave, either in cycles per unit distance or radians per unit ... more

Malus' law in X-ray (relavistic form)

A polarizer or polariser is an optical filter that passes light of a specific polarization and blocks waves of other polarizations.
When a perfect ... more

Wavenumber (with radians)

In the physical sciences, the wavenumber (also wave number) is the spatial frequency of a wave, either in cycles per unit distance or radians per unit ... more

Current equation of solar cell

The theory of solar cells explains the process by which light energy in photons is converted into electric current when the photons strike a suitable ... more

Current diverted through the shunt resistor

The theory of solar cells explains the process by which light energy in photons is converted into electric current when the photons strike a suitable ... more

Relativistic momentum of rigid bodies

In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion. It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a ... more

Redshift: 1+z (based on frequency)

In physics, redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the ... more

Redshift (based on frequency)

In physics, redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the ... more

Redshift (based on wavelength)

In physics, redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the ... more

Redshift: 1+z (based on wavelength)

In physics, redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the ... more

Rayleigh Scattering Cross-Section

Rayleigh scattering (pronounced /ˈreɪli/ RAY-lee), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic ... more

Relativistic energy–momentum relation

In physics, mass–energy equivalence is the concept that the mass of an object or system is a measure of its energy content. A physical system has a ... more

Electromagnetic mass (transverse mass) by Lorentz

Due to the self-induction effect, electrostatic energy behaves as having some sort of momentum and “apparent” electromagnetic mass, which can increase the ... more

Rayleigh Scattering - Intensity of Light from molecules

Rayleigh scattering (pronounced /ˈreɪli/ RAY-lee), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic ... more

Rayleigh Scattering - Intensity of Light

Rayleigh scattering (pronounced /ˈreɪli/ RAY-lee), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic ... more

Electromagnetic mass ( longitudinal mass) by Lorentz

Due to the self-induction effect, electrostatic energy behaves as having some sort of momentum and “apparent” electromagnetic mass, which can ... more

Energy – Momentum relation

In physics, the energy–momentum relation, or relativistic dispersion relation, is the relativistic equation relating any object’s rest (intrinsic) ... more

Ricco's Law

Several laws describe a human’s ability to visually detect targets on a uniform background. One such law is Riccò's law, discovered by astronomer ... more

Frequency (Doppler effect for a moving black body)

Black-body radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by ... more

Sagnac Effect - TIme Difference

The Sagnac effect (also called Sagnac interference), named after French physicist Georges Sagnac, is a phenomenon encountered in interferometry that is ... more

Characteristic equation of a solar cell - function of output current and voltage

The theory of solar cells explains the process by which light energy in photons is converted into electric current when the photons strike a suitable ... more

Sagnac effect (phase difference)

The Sagnac effect, also called Sagnac interference, named after French physicist Georges Sagnac, is a phenomenon encountered in interferometry that is ... more

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