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Townsend avalanche (Townsend discharge)

The Townsend discharge is a gas ionization process where free electrons, accelerated by a sufficiently strong electric field, give rise to electrical ... more

Electric flux (in a uniform field)

Electric flux is the rate of flow of the electric field through a given area. Electric flux is proportional to the number of electric field lines going ... more

Energy stored in a system of three point charges

Electric potential energy, or electrostatic potential energy, is a potential energy that results from conservative Coulomb forces and is associated with ... more

Electric potential (point charge)

The electric potential due to a point charge is the work needed to move a test charge “q” from a large distance away to a distance of ... more

Relation between Polarization density and Electric field in various materials

In classical electromagnetism, polarization density is the vector field that expresses the density of permanent or induced electric dipole moments in a ... more

Torque on a dipole (magnetic field)

A physical dipole consists of two equal and opposite point charges. When placed in an magnetic field, equal but opposite forces arise on each side of the ... more

Electrical conductivity (general definition)

Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is an intrinsic property that quantifies how ... more

Force between two nearby magnetized surfaces

The Gilbert model assumes that the magnetic forces between magnets are due to magnetic charges near the poles. This model produces good approximations that ... more

Gyromagnetic ratio for a nucleus

In physics, the gyromagnetic ratio (also sometimes known as the magnetogyric ratio in other disciplines) of a particle or system is the ratio of its ... more

Stored Energy (Electrical Charge)

Capacitance is a measure of the amount of electric charge stored (or separated) for a given electric potential. Here we can calculate for Stored Energy ... more

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