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Isentropic Relations for an Ideal Gas - Temperature and density

In thermodynamics, an isentropic process is an idealized thermodynamic process that is adiabatic and in which the work transfers of the system are ... more

Collision between electron and ion (The mean free path)

Ionization is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions. Ionization can ... more

Gibbs free energy (when charge is passed in a battery)

The Gibbs free energy is a thermodynamic potential that measures the “usefulness” or process-initiating work obtainable from a thermodynamic system, at a ... more

Gibbs free energy calculator

The Gibbs free energy is a thermodynamic potential that measures the “usefulness” or process-initiating work obtainable from a thermodynamic ... more

Hot Air Balloon Lift

The hot air balloon is the oldest successful human-carrying flight technology. The first hot-air balloon flown in the United States was launched from the ... more

Rayleigh number (for geophysical applications - related to bottom heating of the mantle from the core)

In fluid mechanics, the Rayleigh number (Ra) for a fluid is a dimensionless number associated with buoyancy-driven flow, also known as free convection or ... more

Combined gas law

The combined gas law is a gas law which combines Charles’s law, Boyle’s law, and Gay-Lussac’s law. The combined gas law states that:
... more

Time to reach specific temperature (related to Biot and Fourier numbers)

The Biot number (Bi) is a dimensionless quantity used in heat transfer calculations. Gives a simple index of the ratio of the heat transfer resistances ... more

Biot number (mass transfer)

The Biot number (Bi) is a dimensionless quantity used in heat transfer calculations. Gives a simple index of the ratio of the heat transfer resistances ... more

Density ( temperature dependence)

The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume. The density of a material varies with temperature ... more

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