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Thrust (with cross section area)

Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton’s second and third laws. When a system expels or accelerates mass in one direction, the ... more

Mach Number (subsonic compressible flow)

In fluid mechanics, Mach number (M or Ma) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of speed of an object moving through a fluid and the local ... more

Terminal Velocity (without considering buoyancy)

Terminal velocity is simply the fastest speed that a falling object can reach in a certain circumstance. Different objects have different terminal ... more

Oblique Shock

An oblique shock wave, unlike a normal shock, is inclined with respect to the incident upstream flow direction. It will occur when a supersonic flow ... more

Magnetic flux through a solenoid

A solenoid is a coil wound into a tightly packed helix. In physics, the term refers specifically to a long, thin loop of wire, often wrapped around a ... more

Hydraulic diameter

For flow in a pipe or a sphere moving in a fluid the internal diameter is generally used today. Other shapes such as rectangular pipes or non-spherical ... more

Force due to water hammer (Slow valve closure)

Water hammer (or, more generally, fluid hammer) is a pressure surge or wave caused when a fluid (usually a liquid but sometimes also a gas) in motion is ... more

Worksheet 290

Find the terminal velocity of an 85-kg skydiver falling in a spread-eagle position.

Terminal Velocity (without considering buoyancy)
Rectangle area

where Vt is the terminal velocity, m is the mass of the skydiver, g is the acceleration due to gravity, Cd is the drag coefficient, ρ is the density of the fluid through which the object is falling, and A is the projected area of the object.

Reference : OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.
http://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/college-physics

where h is skydiver height and w the width at “spread-eagle” position

Radar is an object detection system that uses electromagnetic waves to identify the range, altitude, direction, or speed of both moving and fixed objects ... more

Worksheet 316

Calculate the change in length of the upper leg bone (the femur) when a 70.0 kg man supports 62.0 kg of his mass on it, assuming the bone to be equivalent to a uniform rod that is 45.0 cm long and 2.00 cm in radius.

Strategy

The force is equal to the weight supported:

Force (Newton's second law)

and the cross-sectional area of the upper leg bone(femur) is:

Disk area

To find the change in length we use the Young’s modulus formula. The Young’s modulus reference value for a bone under compression is known to be 9×109 N/m2. Now,all quantities except ΔL are known. Thus:

Young's Modulus

Discussion

This small change in length seems reasonable, consistent with our experience that bones are rigid. In fact, even the rather large forces encountered during strenuous physical activity do not compress or bend bones by large amounts. Although bone is rigid compared with fat or muscle, several of the substances listed in Table 5.3(see reference below) have larger values of Young’s modulus Y . In other words, they are more rigid.

Reference:
This worksheet is a modified version of Example 5.4 page 188 found in :
OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.
http://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/college-physics