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Volumetric flow rate

The volumetric flow rate is the volume of fluid which passes through a given surface per unit time. Fow velocity in fluid dynamics or drift velocity in ... more

Mach wave (angle)

In fluid dynamics, a Mach wave is a pressure wave traveling with the speed of sound caused by a slight change of pressure added to a compressible flow. ... more

Head loss in terms of volumetric flow rate

Hydraulic head or piezometric head is a specific measurement of liquid pressure above a geodetic datum.
In any real moving fluid, energy is dissipated ... more

Borda–Carnot equation (sudden expansion of a horizontal pipe)

In fluid dynamics the Borda–Carnot equation is an empirical description of the mechanical energy losses of the fluid due to a (sudden) flow expansion. The ... more

Drift Velocity (with current and conductor section area)

The drift velocity is the average velocity that a particle, such as an electron, attains in a material due to an electric field. It can also be referred to ... more

Exhaust Gas Velocity

A rocket engine nozzle is a propelling nozzle (usually of the de Laval type) used in a rocket engine to expand and accelerate the combustion gases produced ... more

Borda–Carnot equation (Sudden contraction of a pipe)

Borda–Carnot equation is an empirical description of the mechanical energy losses of the fluid due to a (sudden) flow expansion. It describes how the total ... more

Sudden expansion of a pipe (total head loss)

n fluid dynamics the Borda–Carnot equation is an empirical description of the mechanical energy losses of the fluid due to a (sudden) flow expansion. The ... more

Net Thrust of a Rocket Engine

A rocket engine, or simply “rocket”, is a jet engine that uses only stored propellant mass for forming its high speed propulsive jet. Rocket ... more

Mach Number

In fluid mechanics, Mach number (M or Ma) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of speed of an object moving through a fluid and the local ... more

Volumetric flow rate (parallel to the unit normal)

volumetric flow rate, (also known as volume flow rate, rate of fluid flow or volume velocity) is the volume of fluid which passes per unit time. The only ... more

Karman line (lift force)

Karman line, lies at an altitude of 100 kilometers (62 mi) above the Earth’s sea level, and commonly represents the boundary between the ... more

Manning formula

The Manning formula is also known as the Gauckler–Manning formula, or Gauckler–Manning–Strickler formula in Europe. In the United States, in practice, it ... more

Drift Velocity

The drift velocity is the average velocity that a particle, such as an electron, attains in a material due to an electric field. It can also be referred to ... more

Discharge Coefficient

In a nozzle or other constriction, the discharge coefficient (also known as coefficient of discharge) is the ratio of the actual discharge to the ... more

Prandtl–Meyer function

This entry marks fxSolver’s 2000th equation milestone and is a kind contribution by Reddit user ... more

Mach Number (supersonic, calculated from Pitot Tube Pressure)

In fluid mechanics, Mach number (M or Ma) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of speed of an object moving through a fluid and the local ... more

Mach Number (subsonic, calculated from Pitot Tube Pressure)

In fluid mechanics, Mach number (M or Ma) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of speed of an object moving through a fluid and the local ... more

Shock Diamond - distance from the nozzle

Shock diamonds (also known as Mach diamonds, Mach disks, Mach rings, doughnut tails or thrust diamonds) are a formation of standing wave patterns that ... more

Inductance of a solenoid

A solenoid is a coil wound into a tightly packed helix. In physics, the term refers specifically to a long, thin loop of wire, often wrapped around a ... more

Thrust (with cross section area)

Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton’s second and third laws. When a system expels or accelerates mass in one direction, the ... more

Mach Number (subsonic compressible flow)

In fluid mechanics, Mach number (M or Ma) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of speed of an object moving through a fluid and the local ... more

Terminal Velocity (without considering buoyancy)

Terminal velocity is simply the fastest speed that a falling object can reach in a certain circumstance. Different objects have different terminal ... more

Oblique Shock

An oblique shock wave, unlike a normal shock, is inclined with respect to the incident upstream flow direction. It will occur when a supersonic flow ... more

Magnetic flux through a solenoid

A solenoid is a coil wound into a tightly packed helix. In physics, the term refers specifically to a long, thin loop of wire, often wrapped around a ... more

Hydraulic diameter

For flow in a pipe or a sphere moving in a fluid the internal diameter is generally used today. Other shapes such as rectangular pipes or non-spherical ... more

Force due to water hammer (Slow valve closure)

Water hammer (or, more generally, fluid hammer) is a pressure surge or wave caused when a fluid (usually a liquid but sometimes also a gas) in motion is ... more

Worksheet 290

Find the terminal velocity of an 85-kg skydiver falling in a spread-eagle position.

Terminal Velocity (without considering buoyancy)
Rectangle area

where Vt is the terminal velocity, m is the mass of the skydiver, g is the acceleration due to gravity, Cd is the drag coefficient, ρ is the density of the fluid through which the object is falling, and A is the projected area of the object.

Reference : OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.
http://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/college-physics
Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

where h is skydiver height and w the width at “spread-eagle” position

Radar Range

Radar is an object detection system that uses electromagnetic waves to identify the range, altitude, direction, or speed of both moving and fixed objects ... more

Worksheet 316

Calculate the change in length of the upper leg bone (the femur) when a 70.0 kg man supports 62.0 kg of his mass on it, assuming the bone to be equivalent to a uniform rod that is 45.0 cm long and 2.00 cm in radius.

Strategy

The force is equal to the weight supported:

Force (Newton's second law)

and the cross-sectional area of the upper leg bone(femur) is:

Disk area

To find the change in length we use the Young’s modulus formula. The Young’s modulus reference value for a bone under compression is known to be 9×109 N/m2. Now,all quantities except ΔL are known. Thus:

Young's Modulus

Discussion

This small change in length seems reasonable, consistent with our experience that bones are rigid. In fact, even the rather large forces encountered during strenuous physical activity do not compress or bend bones by large amounts. Although bone is rigid compared with fat or muscle, several of the substances listed in Table 5.3(see reference below) have larger values of Young’s modulus Y . In other words, they are more rigid.

Reference:
This worksheet is a modified version of Example 5.4 page 188 found in :
OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.
http://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/college-physics
Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

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