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Oblique Shock

An oblique shock wave, unlike a normal shock, is inclined with respect to the incident upstream flow direction. It will occur when a supersonic flow ... more

Heat-affected zone - heat input for arc welding

The cross-section of a welded butt joint, with the darkest gray representing the weld or fusion zone, the medium gray the heat affected zone, and the ... more

Weighted geometric mean

In mathematics, the geometric mean is a type of mean or average, which indicates the central tendency or typical value of a set of numbers by using the ... more

Power emitted by a planet

Black-body radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by ... more

R-value (insulation) of a multi-layered installation - U.S. units

The R-value is a measure of thermal resistance, or ability of heat to transfer from hot to cold, through materials (such as insulation) and assemblies of ... more

Thermal Diffusivity

In heat transfer analysis, thermal diffusivity (usually denoted α but a, κ and D are also used) is the thermal conductivity divided by density and specific ... more

Hot Air Balloon Lift

The hot air balloon is the oldest successful human-carrying flight technology. The first hot-air balloon flown in the United States was launched from the ... more

Knudsen number (Relationship to Mach and Reynolds numbers in gases)

The Knudsen number (Kn) is a dimensionless number defined as the ratio of the molecular mean free path length to a representative physical length scale. ... more

Scale Height

In various scientific contexts, a scale height is a distance over which a quantity decreases by a factor of e (approximately 2.71828, the base of natural ... more

Charles's law

Charles’ law is an experimental gas law which describes how gases tend to expand when heated. When the pressure on a sample of a dry gas is held ... more

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