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Heat-affected zone - heat input for arc welding

The cross-section of a welded butt joint, with the darkest gray representing the weld or fusion zone, the medium gray the heat affected zone, and the ... more

Wind Power - Betz's law

Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to produce electrical power, windmills for mechanical ... more


Electrohydrodynamics (EHD), also known as electro-fluid-dynamics (EFD) or electrokinetics, is the study ... more

Wave shoaling height

In fluid dynamics, wave shoaling is the effect by which surface waves entering shallower water change in wave height. It is caused by the fact that the ... more

Rayleigh number (for the mushy zone of a solidifying alloy - related to isotherm speed)

In fluid mechanics, the Rayleigh number (Ra) for a fluid is a dimensionless number associated with buoyancy-driven flow, also known as free convection or ... more

Capillary Action - height of the meniscus

Capillary action (sometimes capillarity, capillary motion, or wicking) is the ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of, and ... more

Prandtl number - depending on the fluid properties

The Prandtl number (Pr) or Prandtl group is a dimensionless number, named after the German physicist Ludwig Prandtl, defined as the ratio of momentum ... more

Stanton Number

The Stanton number, St, is a dimensionless number that measures the ratio of heat transferred into a fluid to the thermal capacity of fluid. The Stanton ... more

Speed of Sound in Fluids (Newton-Laplace equation )

The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit of time by a sound wave propagating through an elastic medium.
Sound travels faster in liquids ... more

Borda–Carnot equation

In fluid dynamics the Borda–Carnot equation is an empirical description of the mechanical energy losses of the fluid due to a (sudden) flow expansion. The ... more

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