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Thermal de Broglie wavelength (Massive Particles)

The thermal de Broglie wavelength is the average de Broglie wavelength of the gas particles in an ideal gas at the specified temperature. We can take the ... more

Maxwell–Boltzmann statistics

In statistical mechanics, Maxwell–Boltzmann statistics describes the average distribution of non-interacting material particles over various energy states ... more

Boltzmann factor

In statistical mechanics and mathematics, a Boltzmann distribution (also called Gibbs distribution) is a probability distribution, probability measure, or ... more

Thermal de Broglie wavelength (Massless particles)

The thermal de Broglie wavelength is the average de Broglie wavelength of the gas particles in an ideal gas at the specified temperature. We can take the ... more

Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution (Probability density function)

In physics, particularly statistical mechanics, the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution or Maxwell speed distribution describes particle speeds in idealized ... more

Solar cell - current delivered by the illuminated diode

Operation of a solar cell can be understood from the equivalent circuit at right. Light, of sufficient energy (greater than the bandgap of the material), ... more

Fermi–Dirac distribution

Fermi–Dirac statistics describes a distribution of particles over energy states in systems consisting of many identical particles that obey the Pauli ... more

Rayleigh number (for geophysical applications - related to bottom heating of the mantle from the core)

In fluid mechanics, the Rayleigh number (Ra) for a fluid is a dimensionless number associated with buoyancy-driven flow, also known as free convection or ... more

Rayleigh number (for a uniform wall heating flux)

In fluid mechanics, the Rayleigh number (Ra) for a fluid is a dimensionless number associated with buoyancy-driven flow, also known as free convection or ... more

Helmholtz free energy

The Helmholtz free energy is a thermodynamic potential that measures the “useful” work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system at a constant ... more

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