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Refractive Index ( absolute index of refraction )

The refractive index or index of refraction of a substance is a dimensionless number that describes how light, or any other radiation, propagates through ... more

Vacuum wavelength

When an electromagnetic wave travels through a medium in which it gets attenuated (this is called an “opaque” or “attenuating” ... more

Refarctive index (absence of attenuation in vacuum)

When an electromagnetic wave travels through a medium in which it gets attenuated (this is called an “opaque” or “attenuating” ... more

Angular frequency for electromagnetic waves in vacuum

Plane waves in vacuum are the simplest case of wave propagation: no geometric constraint, no interaction with a transmitting medium. For electromagnetic ... more

Snell's law (velocities)

Snell’s law (also known as the Snell–Descartes law and the law of refraction) is a formula used to describe the relationship between the angles of ... more

Photoacoustic Doppler effect

The photoacoustic Doppler effect is one specific kind of Doppler effect, which occurs when an intensity modulated light wave induces a photoacoustic wave ... more

Arbitrary Cherenkov emission angle

Cherenkov radiation, also known as Vavilov–Cherenkov radiation,[a] is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle (such as an electron) ... more

Wavelength - Sinusoidal Wave

In physics, the wavelength of a sinusoidal wave is the spatial period of the wave—the distance over which the wave’s shape repeats, and the inverse ... more

Time of Flight

Time of flight (TOF) describes a variety of methods that measure the time that it takes for an object, particle or acoustic, ... more

Fresnel reflection (Reflectivity Rp)

The Fresnel equations (or Fresnel conditions) describe the behaviour of light when moving between media of differing refractive indices. The reflection of ... more

Fresnel reflection (Reflectivity Rs)

The Fresnel equations (or Fresnel conditions) describe the behaviour of light when moving between media of differing refractive indices. The reflection of ... more

Polarization angle (Brewster's angle)

The angle of incidence at which light with a particular polarization is perfectly transmitted through a transparent dielectric surface, with no reflection. ... more

Capacity of coaxial cable - Cylindrical Capacitor

A capacitor is an electrical/electronic device that can store energy in the electric field between a pair of conductors. Its capacity depends on the ... more

Sound Wavelength

Wavelength is the distance between repeating units of a propagating wave of a given frequency.
Wavelength depends on the medium (for example, vacuum, ... more

Hemispherical attenuation coefficient

Attenuation coefficient or narrow beam attenuation coefficient of the volume of a material characterizes how easily it can be penetrated by a beam of ... more

Reflectance for unpolarised incident light

The Fresnel equations (or Fresnel conditions) describe the behaviour of light when moving between media of differing refractive indices. The reflection of ... more

Doppler effect ( general equation)

The Doppler effect is the change in frequency of a wave (or other periodic event) for an observer moving relative to its source. When the speeds of source ... more

Snell's Law (related to indices of refraction)

Snell’s law (also known as the Snell–Descartes law and the law of refraction) is a formula used to describe the relationship between the angles of ... more

Doppler Effect - for stationary observer

The Doppler effect is the change in frequency of a wave (or other periodic event) for an observer moving relative to its source. When the speeds of source ... more

Transverse wave velocity (shear wave)

A transverse (shear) wave is a moving wave that consists of oscillations occurring perpendicular (or right angled) to the direction of energy transfer. For ... more

Doppler effect ( relationship between observed frequency and emitted frequency )

The Doppler effect (or Doppler shift) is the change in frequency of a wave (or other periodic event) for an observer moving relative to its source. When ... more

Mach Number

In fluid mechanics, Mach number (M or Ma) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of speed of an object moving through a fluid and the local ... more

Parallel Plate Capacitor (considering the material)

The capacitance of a two parallel plates capacitor both of area A separated by a distance d is calculated by the area of overlap of the two plates, ... more

Settling velocity (Stokes law)

Stokes’ law can be used to calculate the viscosity of a fluid. Stokes’ law is also important in the study for Viscous Drag , Terminal Velocity ... more

Permeability (porous material)

Permeability is a measure of the ability of a porous material a rock or unconsolidated material, to allow fluids to pass through it.
Permeability is ... more

Energy stored in a capacitor

Capacitance is the ability of a body to store an electrical charge. Any object that can be electrically charged exhibits capacitance. A common form of ... more

Drift velocity in a current-carrying metallic ohmic conductor

The drift velocity is the average velocity that a particle, such as an electron, attains due to an electric field.

In terms of the basic ... more

Malus' law in X-ray (relavistic form)

A polarizer or polariser is an optical filter that passes light of a specific polarization and blocks waves of other polarizations.
When a perfect ... more

Stokes's Law of Sound Attenuation

Stokes’s law of sound attenuation is a formula for the attenuation of sound in a Newtonian fluid, such as water or air, due to the fluid’s ... more

Coulomb's constant

Coulomb’s constant, the electric force constant, or the electrostatic constant (denoted ke ) is a proportionality constant in equations relating ... more

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