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Horizontal alignment in road design consists of straight sections of road, known as tangents, connected by circular horizontal curves. Circular curves are ... more

In mathematics, the Klein bottle is an example of a non-orientable surface, informally, it is a surface (a two-dimensional manifold) in which notions of ... more

In spherical trigonometry, the law of cosines (also called the cosine rule for sides) is a theorem relating the sides and angles of spherical triangles, ... more

In astrodynamics, the vis viva equation, also referred to as orbital energy conservation equation, is one of the fundamental equations that govern the ... more

Contact mechanics is the study of the deformation of solids that touch each other at one or more points. Hertzian contact stress refers to the localized ... more

A circle can be defined as the curve traced out by a point that moves so that its distance from a given point is constant. In an x–y Cartesian coordinate ... more

Bikes must lean during a turn to balance the relevant forces: gravitational, inertial, frictional, and ground support. The angle of lean can be ... more

A right triangle (American English) or right-angled triangle (British English) is a triangle in which one angle is a right angle (that is, a 90-degree ... more

The Sérsic profile (or Sérsic model or Sérsic’s law) is a mathematical function that describes how the intensity I of a galaxy varies with distance ... more

The power of a point is a real number that reflects the relative distance of a given point from a given circle. It is related to the distance from the ... more

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