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Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism

The Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism is an astronomical process that occurs when the surface of a star or a planet cools. The cooling causes the pressure to ... more

Vapor Pressure

Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or ... more

Hot Air Balloon Lift

The hot air balloon is the oldest successful human-carrying flight technology. The first hot-air balloon flown in the United States was launched from the ... more

Nut Factor

Bolted joints are one of the most common elements in construction and machine design. They consist of fasteners that capture and join other parts, and are ... more

Borda–Carnot equation (Sudden contraction of a pipe)

Borda–Carnot equation is an empirical description of the mechanical energy losses of the fluid due to a (sudden) flow expansion. It describes how the total ... more

Bretschneider's formula - Area of a general quadrilateral

In geometry, Bretschneider’s formula is the shown expression for the area of a general quadrilateral.

A quadrilateral is a polygon with four ... more

Malus' law in X-ray (relavistic form)

A polarizer or polariser is an optical filter that passes light of a specific polarization and blocks waves of other polarizations.
When a perfect ... more

Auger electron spectroscopy - Total yield

Auger electron spectroscopy is a common analytical technique used specifically in the study of surfaces and, more generally, in the area of materials ... more

Gompertz–Makeham Law of Mortality

The Gompertz–Makeham law states that the human death rate is the sum of an age-independent component (the Makeham term, named after William Makeham) and an ... more

Thermal resistance due to fouling deposits (general)

Often during their use, heat exchangers collect a layer of fouling on the surface which, in addition to potentially contaminating a stream, reduces the ... more

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